Abstract

A two-photon detector based on intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells operating in the Terahertz regime below the Reststrahlenband is reported. Resonantly enhanced optical nonlinearities enables sensitive quadratic detection at pJ pulse energies. We demonstrate its use in a quadratic autocorrelator for far-infrared picosecond pulses at around 7 THz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  15. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Nat. Photon. 1, 517-525 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. For a recent review see M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation under nearlyresonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

For a recent review see M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Walther, and H. C. Liu, "Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Nat. Photon. 1, 517-525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. Spring-Thorpe, and J. C. Cao, "Terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068-4070 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, S.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belyanin, A.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bihlmann, G.

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bois, Ph.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, M.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J. C.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. Spring-Thorpe, and J. C. Cao, "Terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068-4070 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Rossi, A.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S. S.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drachenko, O.

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

Ehret, S.

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiore, A.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleissner, J.

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, A.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, J. A.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hfler, G.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamshidi, H.

C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koidl, P.

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Ultra-sensitive femtosecond two-photon detector with resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption," Opt. Lett. 30, 287-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krtner, F. X.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langford, N.

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation under nearlyresonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Walther, and H. C. Liu, "Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Ultra-sensitive femtosecond two-photon detector with resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption," Opt. Lett. 30, 287-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. Spring-Thorpe, and J. C. Cao, "Terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068-4070 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation under nearlyresonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Walther, and H. C. Liu, "Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Ultra-sensitive femtosecond two-photon detector with resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption," Opt. Lett. 30, 287-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martini, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, M. T.

Myers, T. L.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, T. J.

C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C.

C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Richie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, D. A.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, H.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation under nearlyresonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Walther, and H. C. Liu, "Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Ultra-sensitive femtosecond two-photon detector with resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption," Opt. Lett. 30, 287-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schönbein, C.

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, M. A.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, W. F.

C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C. Y.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. Spring-Thorpe, and J. C. Cao, "Terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068-4070 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spring-Thorpe, A. J.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. Spring-Thorpe, and J. C. Cao, "Terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068-4070 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

For a recent review see M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troccoli, M.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vinter, B.

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, and M. Walther, "Two-photon photocurrent autocorrelation under nearlyresonant excitation," Opt. Express 16, 1523-1528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Walther, and H. C. Liu, "Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, T. Maier, H. C. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Ultra-sensitive femtosecond two-photon detector with resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption," Opt. Lett. 30, 287-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Nat. Photon. 1, 517-525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Weidmann, F. K. Tittel, T. Aellen, M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, and S. Blaser, "Mid-infrared trace-gas sensing with a quasi-continuous-wave Peltier-cooled distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 907-913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

T. Maier, H. Schneider, M. Walther, P. Koidl, and H. C. Liu, "Resonant two-photon photoemission in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 5162-5164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Walther, and H. C. Liu, "Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, A. J. Spring-Thorpe, and J. C. Cao, "Terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4068-4070 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Background-limited terahertz quantum-well photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, Z. R. Wasilewski, J. A. Gupta, and M. Buchanan, "Fano resonance mediated by intersubband-phonon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, H. C. Liu, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, J. Faist, "Room-temperature midinfrared twophoton photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ehret, H. Schneider, C. Schönbein, G. Bihlmann, and J. Fleissner, "Analysis of the transport mechanism in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetection structures using time resolved photocurrent measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Schneider, O. Drachenko, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and M. Walther, "Quadratic autocorrelation of free-electron laser radiation and photocurrent saturation in two-photon quantum-well infrared photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, M. A. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (3)

For a recent review see M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier," Nat. Photon. 1, 411-415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Nat. Photon. 1, 517-525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Richie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Krtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

C. Patel, T. J. Parker, H. Jamshidi, and W. F. Sherman, "Phonon frequencies in GaAs," Phys. Status Solidi B 122, 461-467 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-Mode-Locking of Quantum Cascade Lasers with Ultrafast Optical Nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, J. Nagle, "Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities," Science 271, 168-173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

C. Sirtori and R. Teissier, "Quantum Cascade Lasers: Overview of Basic Principles and State of the Art," in Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures, R. Paiella, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2006), pp. 1-44.

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems (Wiley, New York, 1996).

H. Schneider and H. C. Liu, Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Physics and Applications (Springer, 2006).

S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, "Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Arrays," in Intersubband Transition in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications I, Academic Press, San Diego, Semiconductors and Semimetals Vol. 62 2000, ch. 4, pp. 197-282, edited by H. C. Liu and F. Capasso.

C. Gmachl, O. Malis, and A. Belyanin, "Optical Nonlinearities in Intersubband transitions and Quantum Cascade Lasers," in Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures, R. Paiella, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2006), pp. 181-235.

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, "Stable mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared semiconductor lasers," arXiv:0903.4385v1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Band diagrams for (a) quadratic detection associated with transitions |1〉→|2〉 and |2〉→|3〉, (b) linear detection by transition |1〉→|3〉, and (c) linear detection involving |1〉→|2〉 assisted by tunneling.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Linear photocurrent spectra of THz two-photon QWIP at different bias voltages as indicated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Current-voltage curves of THz two-photon QWIP at temperatures from 10 K to 40 K in 5 K increments with and without background illumination (56 degrees field-of-view).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured intensity dependence of the photocurrent at 20 mV, 100 mV, and 500 mV bias, including a fit for 100 mV.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Interferometric and intensity autocorrelation of FEL pulses at 42 µm (7.1 THz) using a THz two-photon QWIP. Inset: Autocorrelation fringes at an expanded scale.

Equations (1)

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I=S P2 W(ISatSP2),

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