Abstract

Here we report the first demonstration of entanglement distribution over a record distance of 200 km which is of sufficient fidelity to realize secure communication. In contrast to previous entanglement distribution schemes, we use detection elements based on practical avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in a self-differencing mode. These APDs are low-cost, compact and easy to operate requiring only electrical cooling to achieve high single photon detection efficiency. The self-differencing APDs in combination with a reliable parametric down-conversion source demonstrate that entanglement distribution over ultra-long distances has become both possible and practical. Consequently the outlook is extremely promising for real world entanglement-based communication between distantly separated parties.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics (Long Island City, N. Y.) 1, 195–200 (1964).
  3. C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404(6775), 247–255 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Nielson, and I. L. Chuang, Quantum computation and quantum information, (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  5. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. SeeR. Thew and N. Gisin, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007) for a review.
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Acín, N. Gisin, and L. Masanes, “From Bell’s theorem to secure quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 120405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661–663 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell's Theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(5), 557–559 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4737–4740 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, T. Herbst, M. Nespoli, R. Prevedel, T. Scheidl, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of entanglement over a high-loss freespace channel,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.2015 .
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Hubel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7853–7862 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Distribution of polarization-entangled photon pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14512–14523 (2008).
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  18. Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5776–5781 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Phot. 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
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  20. T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19118–19126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(19), 2205–2208 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5μm band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1679–1683 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5μm time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar-lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041804 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, H. Takesue, X. Xie, M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generation of 10-GHz clock sequential time-bin entanglement,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3293–3298 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. By shifting the phase of the fixed temperature PLC by π/2 the non-orthogonal basis was measured.
  32. I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. The observed correlation in the experiment, C is connected to the visibility V thus: C=Vcos2(f) where f is a function of signal and idler phases, f(θs,θi). We use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality [‎34] with associated Bell parameter S=|C(θs,θi)−C(θs,θ′i)+C(θ′s,θ′i)+C(θ′s,θi)|≤2. Quantum-mechanically, this inequality can be violated with maximum violation of S=22. The violation of the Bell CHSH inequality in terms of visibility is hence V>1/2.
  34. J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  35. The factor of two variation in error bar values between the two basis measurements arises from statistical variations from one experimental run to another.

2008 (8)

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Distribution of polarization-entangled photon pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14512–14523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5776–5781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, H. Takesue, X. Xie, M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generation of 10-GHz clock sequential time-bin entanglement,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3293–3298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5μm band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1679–1683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7853–7862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Phot. 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

SeeR. Thew and N. Gisin, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007) for a review.
[CrossRef]

SeeR. Thew and N. Gisin, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007) for a review.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Acín, N. Gisin, and L. Masanes, “From Bell’s theorem to secure quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 120405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 549–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5μm time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar-lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404(6775), 247–255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell's Theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(5), 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(19), 2205–2208 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics (Long Island City, N. Y.) 1, 195–200 (1964).

1935 (1)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47(10), 777–780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Acín, A.

A. Acín, N. Gisin, and L. Masanes, “From Bell’s theorem to secure quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 120405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Aspelmeyer, M.

Baek, B.

Baister, G.

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J. S.

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics (Long Island City, N. Y.) 1, 195–200 (1964).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404(6775), 247–255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell's Theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(5), 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7853–7862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell's Theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(5), 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, J.

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clauser, J. F.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DiVincenzo, D. P.

C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404(6775), 247–255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dreischer, T.

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47(10), 777–780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Franson, J. D.

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(19), 2205–2208 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fuerst, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gisin, N.

SeeR. Thew and N. Gisin, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007) for a review.
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

A. Acín, N. Gisin, and L. Masanes, “From Bell’s theorem to secure quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 120405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R.

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Phot. 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holt, R. A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Horne, M. A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, H.

Inoue, K.

Jennewein, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 549–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Kardynal, B. E.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Langrock, C.

Lederer, T.

Leeb, W.

Lim, H. C.

Lindenthal, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lorünser, T.

Marcikic, I.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masanes, L.

A. Acín, N. Gisin, and L. Masanes, “From Bell’s theorem to secure quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(12), 120405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell's Theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(5), 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyenburg, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

Nam, S. W.

Neckamm, G.

Nishida, Y.

Oemer, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perdigues, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 549–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfennigbauer, M.

Podolsky, B.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47(10), 777–780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

Rarity, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, N.

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47(10), 777–780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Scarani, V.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimony, A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

Takesue, H.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5776–5781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, H. Takesue, X. Xie, M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generation of 10-GHz clock sequential time-bin entanglement,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3293–3298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5μm band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1679–1683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Phot. 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5μm time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar-lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Phot. 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R.

SeeR. Thew and N. Gisin, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007) for a review.
[CrossRef]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanner, M. R.

Wang, Z.

Weier, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 549–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshizawa, A.

Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

Zhang, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post-processing free, random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nat. Phot. (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Phot. 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

SeeR. Thew and N. Gisin, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007) for a review.
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404(6775), 247–255 (2000).
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Opt. Express (8)

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5776–5781 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hubel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7853–7862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Distribution of polarization-entangled photon pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14512–14523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5μm band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1679–1683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, C. Langrock, H. Takesue, X. Xie, M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generation of 10-GHz clock sequential time-bin entanglement,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3293–3298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66(6), 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5μm time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar-lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (6)

The factor of two variation in error bar values between the two basis measurements arises from statistical variations from one experimental run to another.

The observed correlation in the experiment, C is connected to the visibility V thus: C=Vcos2(f) where f is a function of signal and idler phases, f(θs,θi). We use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality [‎34] with associated Bell parameter S=|C(θs,θi)−C(θs,θ′i)+C(θ′s,θ′i)+C(θ′s,θi)|≤2. Quantum-mechanically, this inequality can be violated with maximum violation of S=22. The violation of the Bell CHSH inequality in terms of visibility is hence V>1/2.

By shifting the phase of the fixed temperature PLC by π/2 the non-orthogonal basis was measured.

M. A. Nielson, and I. L. Chuang, Quantum computation and quantum information, (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment,” post deadline paper, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC’2006), paper PDP35.

A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, T. Herbst, M. Nespoli, R. Prevedel, T. Scheidl, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of entanglement over a high-loss freespace channel,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.2015 .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the entanglement distribution setup. IM: intensity modulator operating at 1GHz, EDFA: Erbium doped fiber amplifier, filter (1): fiber Bragg grating to suppress amplified spontaneous emission from the EDFA, pol. control.: polarization controller, PPLN SHG: periodically poled Lithium Niobate waveguide for second harmonic generation, filter (2): 1551 nm band blocking custom designed filter from Oyokoden, PPLN PDC periodically poled Lithium Niobate waveguide for parametric downconversion, filter (3): 775 nm band blocking custom designed filter from Optohub, filter (4) 100 GHz custom designed dielectric band pass filter from Optohub, PLC: planar lightwave circuit, APD: avalanche photodiode, Discr. level: discrimination level for photon counting, TAC: time acquisition card. Colored arrows refer to optical pathways; black arrows refer to electrical signal pathways.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time resolved histograms of the photon coincidences at three distances for the signal and idler APDs. (a): 0 km constructive interference, (b): 0 km destructive interference. The histograms for a distance of 0 km shows that the central coincidence slot is well separated from the two non-coincident time slots. This enabled a window of 700 ps width to be applied to post select the coincidence counts. The widths of the peaks are broadened from the inherent (combined) APD short time width of 100 ps to 200 ps. This broadening is due to the additional electronic jitter of the discriminators used to count photons. (c): Example of constructive interference using 700 ps time window widths over 150 km and (d): Example of constructive interference using 700 ps time window widths over 200 km. In both cases, the central coincidence peak at relative time window 0 is used in the visibility measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Visibility traces for entanglement distribution over a combined fiber distance of 150 km. (b) Visibility traces for entanglement distribution over a combined fiber distance of 200 km. Red circles and black squares: experimental data for non-orthogonal bases; solid lines: corresponding fits to the experimental data. Error bars in the visibility traces were obtained by taking the square root of the number of photon counts at each PLC temperature step. The visibility fits were obtained without any statistical weighting of the experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distance dependence of the visibility of distributed entangled photon pairs. Red and black circles correspond to measured average visibilities. Error bars are one standard deviation. The experimental data points for distances of 150 km and 200 km were obtained over dispersion shifted fiber. The experimental data for distances of 100 km and 220 km were obtained using optical attenuators with equivalent losses of 100 km and 220 km of fiber. Solid black line: theoretical visibility based on Honjo et al. [17]. Solid dotted line: Optimized mean photon pair number as a function of fiber distance. Also shown is the Bell’s inequality limit of 70.7%.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ=Σx=1Naxexp(iϕx)xsxi
Σy.xN [exp(iθx)i<y|s<y|x>s|x>i+exp(iθs+iθi)i<y|s<y|x+1>s|x+1>i]
V=μcαsαi4μcαsαi4+2(μcαs/2+ds)(μcαi/2+di)

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