Abstract

A TE-TM mode converter is proposed in a single trench GaInAsP/InP waveguide, which is fabricated by a single masking and etching process. Use of single-trench structure makes the design and the fabrication much simpler. The design of single-trench mode converter is described together with its fabrication in this article. We investigated the dependence of conversion efficiency on the waveguide width, trench depth, and trench position. Also, the wavelength dependence of mode conversion efficiency was calculated in a wavelength range between 1.5 µm to 1.58 µm. 95% TE-TM mode conversion was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 µm in a fabricated device with a 210-µm half-beat length.

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References

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  1. Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39(33), 6158–6164 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-33-6158 .
    [CrossRef]

2007

Y. Shoji, I.-W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, and T. Mizumoto, “Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using nonreciprocal phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 3108–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, “Short Polarization Converter Optimized for Active–Passive Integration in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1673–1675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2002

2001

2000

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, “Realization of novel low-loss monolithically mode converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43–45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt. 39(33), 6158–6164 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-33-6158 .
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally- periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127(1-3), 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ando, S.

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Augustin, L. M.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, “Short Polarization Converter Optimized for Active–Passive Integration in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1673–1675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bolla, L.

Brooks, C.

Deng, H.

El-Mikathi, H. A.

Fontaine, M.

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally- periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127(1-3), 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Futakuchi, N.

Geluk, E. J.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, “Short Polarization Converter Optimized for Active–Passive Integration in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1673–1675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Himeno, A.

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, B. M.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, “Realization of novel low-loss monolithically mode converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43–45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.-W.

Huang, J. Z.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, “Realization of novel low-loss monolithically mode converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43–45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

Kawachi, M.

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, M. V.

Krauss, T. F.

Midrio, M.

Miller, B. I.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

Nagy, G.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

O’Faolain, L.

Obayya, S. S. A.

Oron, M.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Y. Shoji, I.-W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, and T. Mizumoto, “Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using nonreciprocal phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 3108–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

Rajarajan, M.

Sawada, T.

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shinjo, N.

Shoji, Y.

Smit, M. K.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, “Short Polarization Converter Optimized for Active–Passive Integration in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1673–1675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Somasiri, N.

Steel, M. J.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, A. Himeno, and M. Kawachi, “Elimination of polarization sensitivity in silica-based wavelength division multiplexer using a polyimide half waveplate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(10), 1947–1957 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tarr, G.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, “Passive silicon-on-insulator polarization-rotating Waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzolov, V. P.

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally- periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127(1-3), 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, “Short Polarization Converter Optimized for Active–Passive Integration in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1673–1675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yevick, D. O.

Yokoi, H.

Young, M. G.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, and M. G. Young, “Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1278–1280 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, G. Nagy, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, “Realization of a compact and single-mode optical passive polarization converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(3), 317–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, E. J. Geluk, and M. K. Smit, “Short Polarization Converter Optimized for Active–Passive Integration in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1673–1675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, “Realization of novel low-loss monolithically mode converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43–45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

V. P. Tzolov and M. Fontaine, “A passive polarization converter free of longitudinally- periodic structure,” Opt. Commun. 127(1-3), 7–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Brooks, P. E. Jessop, H. Deng, D. O. Yevick, and G. Tarr, “Passive silicon-on-insulator polarization-rotating Waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 044603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of a single trench mode converter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a fabricated GaInAsP single-trench waveguide mode converter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of rotation parameter R with respect to the waveguide width.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of conversion efficiency with respect to (a) waveguide width (Wopt=1.02 µm, 1.06 µm, and 1.11 µm for t=100 nm, 150 nm, and 200 nm, respectively) and (b) trench depth (Dopt=0.4 µm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wavelength dependence of conversion efficiency.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measurement setup. LD: laser diode, POL: polarizer, PMF: polarization maintaining fiber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured conversion efficiency as a function of waveguide width in a 210-µm-long single-trench type mode converter

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Wavelength dependence of conversion efficiency

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=Ωn2(x,y)·Ex(x,y)2dxdyΩn2(x,y)·Ey(x,y)2dxdy,
PC=4sin2ϕcos2ϕsin2(πL2Lπ),

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