Abstract

We perform a systematic study of the resonant transmission of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light through a single subwavelength slit in a gold film when the parameters defining the structure are varied. We further examine the optical properties of a related nanostructure, a cross with subwavelength sized features. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to fabricate nanoslits and crosses with linewidths ranging from 26 nm to 85 nm. The dimensions of the structure are found to affect strongly the transmittance spectrum. For example, as the slit becomes narrower the resonance is observed to both sharpen and shift significantly. Our observations are in good agreement with our earlier numerical calculations on the optical properties of nanoslits.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, "Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 311-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (8)

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lindberg, K. Lindfors, T. Setälä, M. Kaivola, and A. T. Friberg, "Spectral analysis of resonant transmission of light through a single sub-wavelength slit," Opt. Express 12, 623-630 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple Paths to Enhance Optical Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, "Resonant Transmission of Microwaves through a Narrow Metallic Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. Takakura, "Optical Resonance in a Narrow Slit in a Thick Metallic Screen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601-5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D.E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, and D. D. Bacon, "Optical properties of Au: Sample effects," Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290-3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Arctander, E.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D.E.

D.E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, and D. D. Bacon, "Optical properties of Au: Sample effects," Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290-3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, D. D.

D.E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, and D. D. Bacon, "Optical properties of Au: Sample effects," Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290-3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bravo-Abad, J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple Paths to Enhance Optical Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

Fromm, D. P.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F.J.

F.J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple Paths to Enhance Optical Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, "Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection," Phys. Rev. B 73, 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gösch, M.

Hesselink, L.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, P.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

Kamaev, V.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamat, P. V.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kinsbron, E.

D.E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, and D. D. Bacon, "Optical properties of Au: Sample effects," Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290-3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, "Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, Ph.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Lawrence, C. R

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-W.

K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, "Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-L.

K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, "Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leutenegger, M.

Lezec, H. J.

F.J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple Paths to Enhance Optical Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H.J.

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, J.

Lindfors, K.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lockyear, M. J.

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mammel, W. L.

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 311-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple Paths to Enhance Optical Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matteo, J. A.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H.T.

H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, "Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palamaru, M.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Pardo, F.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelouard, J.-L.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perentes, A.

Preist, T. W.

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robel, I.

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, "Resonant Transmission of Microwaves through a Narrow Metallic Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Setälä, T.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 311-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suckling, J. R.

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takakura, Y.

Y. Takakura, "Optical Resonance in a Narrow Slit in a Thick Metallic Screen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601-5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teissier, R.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-S.

K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, "Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

Wei, P.-K.

K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, "Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, "Resonant Transmission of Microwaves through a Narrow Metallic Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, Y.

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 311-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Dintinger, I. Robel, P. V. Kamat, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Terahertz All-Optical Molecule-Plasmon Modulation," Adv. Mater. 18, 1645-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. A. Matteo, D. P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P. J. Schuck, W. E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, "Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 648-650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Efficient light absorption in metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Lee, W.-S. Wang, and P.-K. Wei, "Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 311-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

D.E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, and D. D. Bacon, "Optical properties of Au: Sample effects," Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290-3299 (1980).
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R. Gordon, "Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: Propagation and reflection," Phys. Rev. B 73, 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. R. Suckling, A. P. Hibbins, M. J. Lockyear, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and C. R Lawrence, "Finite Conductance Governs the Resonance Transmission of Thin Metal Slits at Microwave Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takakura, "Optical Resonance in a Narrow Slit in a Thick Metallic Screen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601-5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, "Resonant Transmission of Microwaves through a Narrow Metallic Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple Paths to Enhance Optical Transmission through a Single Subwavelength Slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
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H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, "Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006).
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Other (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrographs of nanoslits fabricated in gold film by focused ion beam milling: (a) 33 nm wide slit and (b) 31 nm linewidth cross. The inset in (a) displays a section of the slit at higher magnification. The angle θ in (a) and (b) defines the direction of polarization of the incident field.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup used to study the nanoslit structures. Light from a tungsten halogen lamp (L) is passed through long-wave pass filter (LP), polarized with a polarizer (POL) and focused on the sample (S). The transmitted light is collected with a microscope objective (MO) and imaged onto either a charge coupled device camera (CCD) or coupled into a multi-mode optical fiber (MMF) that directs the light into a grating spectrometer (SM) equipped with detectors for the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (IR) spectral regions. An iris diaphragm (ID) is used to select only light emerging from one slit.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized transmission spectra of nanoslits of different widths milled in a (193±2) nm thick gold film: 26 nm (black open squares), 35 nm (red open circles), 73 nm (green open triangles), and 85 nm (blue solid triangles) wide slits. The spectrum for a 26 nm wide slit milled in a (270±5) nm thick film is plotted with magenta open diamonds. The spectra have been normalized with the slit width in nanometers. The vertical line indicates the position of the resonance of the most narrow slit of the 193 nm thick film. The polarization of the incident light is orthogonal to the slit (θ=0°, see Fig. 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Theoretically calculated resonance wavelength λres as a function of waveguide core thickness d. (b) Phase of the reflection coefficient of the waveguide ends with permittivities 1 (black continuous curve) and 2.25 (blue dashed curve) as a function of waveguide core thickness at the corresponding resonance wavelength. (c) The effective index of the mode n eff and the normalized imaginary part of the propagation constant k eff as a function of d at the corresponding resonance wavelength. (d) The dependence on d of the absolute value of the reflection coefficients r 1 and r 2 of the waveguide ends with permittivities 1 (black continuous curve) and 2.25 (blue dashed curve) at the corresponding resonance wavelength. In all calculations the length of the waveguide was t=193 nm and the medium in the waveguide had a permittivity of 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra of 33 nm wide slits in 193 nm thick gold film for different slit lengths: 25 µm (black open squares), 10 µm (red open circles), 5 µm (green open triangles), 2.5 µm (blue solid triangles), and 1.25 µm (magenta diamonds). The spectra were normalized with the slit length in micrometers. The polarization of the incident light is orthogonal to the slit (θ=0°, see Fig. 1).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra of ≈30 nm wide slit and cross structures in 193 nm thick gold film as a function of the polarization direction θ (see Fig. 1) of the incident field: (a) spectral transmittance of a 25 µm long and 33 nm wide slit as a function of θ, (b) transmission spectrum of the slit for θ=4°, (c) spectral transmittance of a cross composed of two 25 µm long and 31 nm wide slits as a function of θ, and (d) transmission spectrum of the cross for θ=4°. The spectra have been normalized by the maximum transmittance of the cross. In (a) and (c) the vertical line is along the cross section θ=4°.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Polar plot of the maximum transmittance of the cross and slit structures as a function of the polarization direction θ of the incident field. The figure shows the transmittance along the horizontal line in Figs. 6(a) and 6(c) for the cross (black points) and the slit (blue circles), respectively. The solid line is a cos2 θ fit to the data for the slit. The data point for θ=-6° was the start point and was measured a second time after completing a full circle. The data was normalized with the peak transmittance of the cross.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Change in transmission spectrum when a drop of 1,9-nonanedithiol is applied to the sample: transmission spectrum of a 26 nm wide slit milled in a 270 nm thick gold film for air (black open squares) and 1,9-nonanedithiol (red open circles) in the slit.

Equations (2)

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T(λ)=Ssample(λ)Sfilm(λ)Sempty(λ),
2k0nefft+ϕ1+ϕ2=m 2 π ,

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