Abstract

The Generalized SCIDAR (Scintillation Detection and Ranging) technique consists in the computation of the mean autocorrelation of double-star scintillation images taken on a virtual plane located a few kilometers below the telescope pupil. This autocorrelation is normalized by the autocorrelation of the mean image. Johnston et al. in 2002 [1] pointed out that this normalization leads to an inexact estimate of the optical-turbulence strength C 2 N. Those authors restricted their analysis to turbulence at ground level. Here we generalize that study by calculating analytically the error induced by that normalization, for a turbulent layer at any altitude. An exact expression is given for any telescope–pupil shape and an approximate simple formula is provided for a full circular pupil. We show that the effect of the inexact normalization is to overestimate the C 2 N values. The error is larger for higher turbulent layers, smaller telescopes, longer distances of the analysis plane from the pupil, wider double-star separations, and larger differences of stellar magnitudes. Depending on the observational parameters and the turbulence altitude, the relative error can take values from zero up to a factor of 4, in which case the real C 2 N value is only 0.2 times the erroneous one. Our results can be applied to correct the C 2 N profiles that have been measured using the Generalized SCIDAR technique.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Johnston, C. Dainty, N. J. Wooder, and R. G. Lane, "Generalized scintillation detection and ranging results obtained by use of a modified inversion technique," Appl. Opt. 41(32), 6768-6772 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Vernin and F. Roddier, "Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation. Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 63, 270-273 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Rocca, F. Roddier, and J. Vernin, "Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1000-1004 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapt’e au speckle atmosph’erique. I-Formation du speckle en atmosph`ere turbulente. Proprietes statistiques," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 5-9 (1983).
  5. J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapte au speckle atmospherique. II-analyse multidimensionnelle appliquee au diagnostic a distance de la turbulence," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131-142 (1983).
  6. V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-L. Prieur, G. Daigne, and R. Avila, "SCIDAR measurements at Pic du Midi," Astron. Astrophys. 371, 366-377 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Roddier, "The Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy," Progress in Optics XIX, 281-376 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Avila, E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, and L. Sanchez, "Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir: I. Turbulence profile statistics," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 682-692 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane," in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood and W. B. Miller, eds., Vol. 2222, pp. 682-692 (1994).
  12. R. Avila, J. Vernin, and E. Masciadri, "Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized Scidar," Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7898-7905 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focussiong on a turbulent layer: Principle of the Generalized SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence Profiles with Generalized Scidar at San Pedro M’artir Observatory and Isoplanatism Studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Kern, T. A. Laurence, C. Martin, and P. E. Dimotakis, "Temporal coherence of individual turbulent patterns in atmospheric seeing," Appl. Opt. 39, 4879-4885 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Avila, J. Vernin, and L. J. S’anchez, "Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar," Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Garcıa-Lorenzo and J. J. Fuensalida, "Processing of turbulent-layer wind speed with Generalized SCIDAR through wavelet analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1483-1495 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0608595.
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. E. Egner, E. Masciadri, and D. McKenna, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at Mount Graham," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 669-686 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Vernin, H. Trinquet, G. Jumper, E. Murphy, and A. Ratkowski, "OHP02 gravity wave campaign in relation to optical turbulence," Environmental Fluid Mechanics 7, 371-+ (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. E. Egner and E. Masciadri, "A G-SCIDAR for Ground-Layer Turbulence Measurements at High Vertical Resolution," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1441-1448 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. J. Fuensalida, B. Garcıa-Lorenzo, and C. Hoegemann, "Correction of the dome seeing contribution from generalized-SCIDAR data using evenness properties with Fourier analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 731-740 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, New-York, 1985).

2009 (1)

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Fuensalida, B. Garcıa-Lorenzo, and C. Hoegemann, "Correction of the dome seeing contribution from generalized-SCIDAR data using evenness properties with Fourier analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 731-740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. E. Egner, E. Masciadri, and D. McKenna, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at Mount Graham," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 669-686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Egner and E. Masciadri, "A G-SCIDAR for Ground-Layer Turbulence Measurements at High Vertical Resolution," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1441-1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Garcıa-Lorenzo and J. J. Fuensalida, "Processing of turbulent-layer wind speed with Generalized SCIDAR through wavelet analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1483-1495 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0608595.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Avila, E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, and L. Sanchez, "Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir: I. Turbulence profile statistics," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 682-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J.-L. Prieur, G. Daigne, and R. Avila, "SCIDAR measurements at Pic du Midi," Astron. Astrophys. 371, 366-377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and L. J. S’anchez, "Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar," Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (3)

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focussiong on a turbulent layer: Principle of the Generalized SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence Profiles with Generalized Scidar at San Pedro M’artir Observatory and Isoplanatism Studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1983 (2)

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapt’e au speckle atmosph’erique. I-Formation du speckle en atmosph`ere turbulente. Proprietes statistiques," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 5-9 (1983).

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapte au speckle atmospherique. II-analyse multidimensionnelle appliquee au diagnostic a distance de la turbulence," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131-142 (1983).

1981 (1)

F. Roddier, "The Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy," Progress in Optics XIX, 281-376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, and J. Vernin, "Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1000-1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, "Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation. Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 63, 270-273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adcock, M. J.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Avil’es, J. L.

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, and L. Sanchez, "Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir: I. Turbulence profile statistics," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 682-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Prieur, G. Daigne, and R. Avila, "SCIDAR measurements at Pic du Midi," Astron. Astrophys. 371, 366-377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and L. J. S’anchez, "Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar," Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence Profiles with Generalized Scidar at San Pedro M’artir Observatory and Isoplanatism Studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and E. Masciadri, "Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized Scidar," Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7898-7905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aviles, J.-L.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azouit, M.

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapt’e au speckle atmosph’erique. I-Formation du speckle en atmosph`ere turbulente. Proprietes statistiques," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 5-9 (1983).

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapte au speckle atmospherique. II-analyse multidimensionnelle appliquee au diagnostic a distance de la turbulence," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131-142 (1983).

Benigni, S.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Butterley, T.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, E.

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence Profiles with Generalized Scidar at San Pedro M’artir Observatory and Isoplanatism Studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daigne, G.

J.-L. Prieur, G. Daigne, and R. Avila, "SCIDAR measurements at Pic du Midi," Astron. Astrophys. 371, 366-377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dainty, J. C.

R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dimotakis, P. E.

Egner, S. E.

S. E. Egner, E. Masciadri, and D. McKenna, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at Mount Graham," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 669-686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Egner and E. Masciadri, "A G-SCIDAR for Ground-Layer Turbulence Measurements at High Vertical Resolution," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1441-1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, A.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focussiong on a turbulent layer: Principle of the Generalized SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuensalida, J. J.

J. J. Fuensalida, B. Garcıa-Lorenzo, and C. Hoegemann, "Correction of the dome seeing contribution from generalized-SCIDAR data using evenness properties with Fourier analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 731-740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Garcıa-Lorenzo and J. J. Fuensalida, "Processing of turbulent-layer wind speed with Generalized SCIDAR through wavelet analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1483-1495 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0608595.
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Lorenzo, B.

J. J. Fuensalida, B. Garcıa-Lorenzo, and C. Hoegemann, "Correction of the dome seeing contribution from generalized-SCIDAR data using evenness properties with Fourier analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 731-740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Garcıa-Lorenzo and J. J. Fuensalida, "Processing of turbulent-layer wind speed with Generalized SCIDAR through wavelet analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1483-1495 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0608595.
[CrossRef]

Hoegemann, C.

J. J. Fuensalida, B. Garcıa-Lorenzo, and C. Hoegemann, "Correction of the dome seeing contribution from generalized-SCIDAR data using evenness properties with Fourier analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 731-740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, R. A.

Kern, B.

Kl¨uckers, V. A.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lane, R. G.

Laurence, T. A.

Martin, C.

Masciadri, E.

S. E. Egner and E. Masciadri, "A G-SCIDAR for Ground-Layer Turbulence Measurements at High Vertical Resolution," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1441-1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Egner, E. Masciadri, and D. McKenna, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at Mount Graham," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 669-686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, and L. Sanchez, "Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir: I. Turbulence profile statistics," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 682-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and E. Masciadri, "Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized Scidar," Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7898-7905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, D.

S. E. Egner, E. Masciadri, and D. McKenna, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at Mount Graham," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 669-686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munro, I.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, T. W.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, J.-L.

J.-L. Prieur, G. Daigne, and R. Avila, "SCIDAR measurements at Pic du Midi," Astron. Astrophys. 371, 366-377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rigal, F.

R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, A.

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, and J. Vernin, "Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1000-1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, "The Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy," Progress in Optics XIX, 281-376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, and J. Vernin, "Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1000-1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, "Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation. Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 63, 270-273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focussiong on a turbulent layer: Principle of the Generalized SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, and L. Sanchez, "Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir: I. Turbulence profile statistics," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 682-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and L. J. S’anchez, "Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar," Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence Profiles with Generalized Scidar at San Pedro M’artir Observatory and Isoplanatism Studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focussiong on a turbulent layer: Principle of the Generalized SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and E. Masciadri, "Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized Scidar," Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7898-7905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapte au speckle atmospherique. II-analyse multidimensionnelle appliquee au diagnostic a distance de la turbulence," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131-142 (1983).

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapt’e au speckle atmosph’erique. I-Formation du speckle en atmosph`ere turbulente. Proprietes statistiques," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 5-9 (1983).

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, and J. Vernin, "Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1000-1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, "Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation. Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 63, 270-273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wier, D.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. W.

R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wooder, N. J.

R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Johnston, C. Dainty, N. J. Wooder, and R. G. Lane, "Generalized scintillation detection and ranging results obtained by use of a modified inversion technique," Appl. Opt. 41(32), 6768-6772 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziad, A.

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and L. J. S’anchez, "Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar," Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Prieur, G. Daigne, and R. Avila, "SCIDAR measurements at Pic du Midi," Astron. Astrophys. 371, 366-377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. J. Adcock, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "Profiling of Atmospheric Turbulence Strength and Velocity using a Generalised SCIDAR Technique," Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris) (2)

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapt’e au speckle atmosph’erique. I-Formation du speckle en atmosph`ere turbulente. Proprietes statistiques," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 5-9 (1983).

J. Vernin and M. Azouit, "Traitement d’image adapte au speckle atmospherique. II-analyse multidimensionnelle appliquee au diagnostic a distance de la turbulence," J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131-142 (1983).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, "Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation. Evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 63, 270-273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, and J. Vernin, "Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1000-1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (5)

M. Chun, R. Wilson, R. Avila, T. Butterley, J.-L. Aviles, D. Wier, and S. Benigni, "Mauna Kea ground-layer characterization campaign," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1121-1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wilson, N. J. Wooder, F. Rigal, and J. C. Dainty, "Estimation of anisoplanatism in adaptive optics by generalized SCIDAR profiling," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, 491-494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. L. Aviles, R. Wilson, M. Chun, T. Butterley, and E. Carrasco, "LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 1511-1516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Garcıa-Lorenzo and J. J. Fuensalida, "Processing of turbulent-layer wind speed with Generalized SCIDAR through wavelet analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1483-1495 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0608595.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Fuensalida, B. Garcıa-Lorenzo, and C. Hoegemann, "Correction of the dome seeing contribution from generalized-SCIDAR data using evenness properties with Fourier analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 389, 731-740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Progress in Optics (1)

F. Roddier, "The Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence in Optical Astronomy," Progress in Optics XIX, 281-376 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (6)

R. Avila, E. Masciadri, J. Vernin, and L. Sanchez, "Generalized SCIDAR measurements at San Pedro Martir: I. Turbulence profile statistics," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 682-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Focussiong on a turbulent layer: Principle of the Generalized SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86-91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence Profiles with Generalized Scidar at San Pedro M’artir Observatory and Isoplanatism Studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, J. Vernin, A. Ziad, and M. Chun, "Optical Turbulence Profiles at Mauna Kea Measured by MASS and SCIDAR," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 395-400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Egner, E. Masciadri, and D. McKenna, "Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at Mount Graham," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 669-686 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Egner and E. Masciadri, "A G-SCIDAR for Ground-Layer Turbulence Measurements at High Vertical Resolution," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 119, 1441-1448 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Vernin, H. Trinquet, G. Jumper, E. Murphy, and A. Ratkowski, "OHP02 gravity wave campaign in relation to optical turbulence," Environmental Fluid Mechanics 7, 371-+ (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley-Interscience, New-York, 1985).

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, "Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane," in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood and W. B. Miller, eds., Vol. 2222, pp. 682-692 (1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical beams from the on-axis (solid lines) and off-axis (dashed lines) stars, reaching the virtual analysis plane. Two triangles are emphasized in thick lines. The bases of the taller and smaller triangles indicate the separation of the scintillation patterns (drawn as two identical speckles) and the pupil projections respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic representation of a cut of ΓI(r) (black line) along the double-star separation, for (a) d=0, (b) D and (c) 0<<D. The green, magenta and yellow dashed lines in (a) and (b) represent A 1 A 2 S(r+ θd), (A 2 1+A 2 2) S(r) and A 1 A 2 S(r θd), respectively. Red curves represent the scintillation autocovariance terms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diametral cut of the normalized autocorrelation of a disk with diameter D without central obscuration (a) and with a central obscuration of diameter 0.3D (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Relative error as a function of the altitude h of the turbulence, for a circular pupil of diameter D=1 m and b=0.25. Each color corresponds to a different value of θ as indicated in seconds of arc by the color labels on the plot. Solid lines are obtained by the exact computation of ε following Eqs. 32 and 33. Dotted lines correspond to the approximate expression ε�� given in Eq. 37. (b) Same as (a) but for a circular pupil with a central obscuration of diameter 0.3D.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relative error as a function of the altitude h of the turbulence, for: (a) different values of D and θ=10″, d=4 km, e=0.3 and b=0.25; (b) different values of d and D=1.5 m, e=0.3, θ=7.5″ and b=0.25; (c) different values of e and D=1.5 m, d=4 km, θ=7.5″ and b=0.25; (d)different values of b and D=1.5 m, d=4 km, θ=7.5″ and e=0.3

Equations (44)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

𝓒(r)=CN2(h)δhK(r,h),
K(r,h)=0.243 k2 0du u83 sin2 (πλhu2)J0(2πur),
𝓒(rθ(h+d))=CN2(h)δhK(rθ(h+d),h+d).
𝓒multi(rθ(h+d))=d+dhCN2(h)δhK(rθ(h+d),h+d).
L0.78 λ(h+d) ,
hmax=Dθ,
Is(r)A f (r)P(r),
I(r)A1f(r)P(r)+A2f(r+θ(d+h))P(r+θd).
ΓI(r)I(r)I(r)=A12f(r)P(r)f(r)P(r)
+A22f(r+θ(d+h))P(r+θd)f(r+θ(d+h))P(r+θd)
+A1A2f(r)P(r)f(r+θ(d+h))P(r+θd)
+A1A2f(r+θ(d+h))P(r+θd)f(r)P(r).
T1A12f(r)P(r)f(r)P(r)=A12dρf(ρ)P(ρ)f(ρ+r)P(ρ+r).
T1=A12dρf(ρ)f(ρ+r)P(ρ)P(ρ+r).
C(r)f(ρ)f(ρ+r)and
S(r)dρP(ρ)P(ρ+r),
T1=A12C(r)S(r).
𝓒(r)=C (r)1,
ΓI(r)=(A12+A22)C(r)S (r)
+A1A2C(r+θ(d+h))S(r+θd)
+A1A2C(rθ(d+h))S(rθd).
I(r)=A1P(r)+A2P(r+θd),
ΓI(r)I(r)I(r)=(A12+A22)S(r)
+A1A2S(r+θd)
+ A1 A2 S (rθd).
Λ(r)ΓI(r)ΓI(r)ΓI(r) .
Λ(r)=α [C(r)1]+b[C(r+θh)1]+b[C(rθh)1],
αA12+A22(A1+A2)2,
bA1A2(A1+A2)2.
α=1+α2(1+α)2,
b=α(1+α)2.
term1:Λc(r)=(A12+A22)S(r)[C(r)1](A12+A22)S(r) =C (r)1 ,
term2:Λ1(r)=A1A2S(r+θd)[C(r+θd+θh)1]A1A2S(r+θd) =C (r+θd+θh)1 ,
term3:Λr(r)=A1A2S(rθd)[C(rθdθh)1]A1A2S(rθd) =C (rθdθh)1.
Λ(r)=A1A2[C(rθdθh)1]S(rθd)(A12+A22)S(r)+A1A2[S(r+θd)+S(rθd)],forr>θd,
Λ(r)=b[C(rθdθh)1]S(rθd)αS(r)+b[S(r+θd)+S(rθd)],forr>θd,
F(r)b [C(rθdθh)1] , for r >θ d .
ε(r)=Λ(r)F(r)F(r)
ε(r)=S(rθd)αS(r)+b[S(r+θd)+S(rθd)]1.
S(r)=𝓕1[𝓕[P(r)]2],
𝒟(r,D)={1forr<D,0otherwise
S𝒟 (r){S𝒟(0)(1rD)forr<D,0otherwise.
ε𝒟 (r){θdDrforr<Dθd,b(Dr)+(1b)θd(1b)(Dr)+bθdforDθdr<D,1bbforDr<D+θd.}
ε𝒟 (h){θdDθdθhforh<hmax2d,b(Dθh)+(12b)θd(1b)(Dθh)(12b)θdforhmax2dh<hmaxd,1bbforhmaxdh<hmax,

Metrics