Abstract

We present a portable system for non-invasive, simultaneous sensing of molecular oxygen (O2) and water vapor (H2O) in the human paranasal cavities. The system is based on high-resolution tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) and digital wavelength modulation spectroscopy (dWMS). Since optical interference and non-ideal tuning of the diode lasers render signal processing complex, we focus on Fourier analysis of dWMS signals and procedures for removal of background signals. Clinical data are presented, and exhibit a significant improvement in signal-to-noise with respect to earlier work. The in situ detection limit, in terms of absorption fraction, is about 5×10−5 for oxygen and 5×10−4 for water vapor, but varies between patients due to differences in light attenuation. In addition, we discuss the use of water vapor as a reference in quantification of in situ oxygen concentration in detail. In particular, light propagation aspects are investigated by employing photon time-of-flight spectroscopy.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  15. W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).
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  22. E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (6)

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, "Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS," Proc. SPIE 7142, 714202 (2008).

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

2006 (1)

G. Galbacs, "A review of applications and experimental improvements related to diode laser atomic spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 259-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Buck, "New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor," J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527-1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alerstam, E.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

Andersson-Engels, S.

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bachert, C.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buck, A.

A. Buck, "New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor," J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527-1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cassel-Engquist, M.

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

Chance, B.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, R.

R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fernholz, T.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fokkens, W.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).

Folestad, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galbacs, G.

G. Galbacs, "A review of applications and experimental improvements related to diode laser atomic spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 259-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hormann, K.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jæger, T.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, J.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaspersen, P.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, J.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lewander, M.

Lindberg, Å.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linnerud, I.

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luckhaupt, H.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lund, V.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).

Martin, P.

P. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mosges, R.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mullol, J.

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Persson, L.

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

Rasp, G.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riechelmann, H.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rippe, L.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudack, C.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sjöholm, M.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stuck, B. A.

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

Svanberg, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, "Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS," Proc. SPIE 7142, 714202 (2008).

L. Persson, M. Lewander, M. Andersson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Simultaneous detection of molecular oxygen and water vapor in the tissue optical window using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 47, 2028-2034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Analysis of gas dispersed in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 26, 16-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, and S. Andersson-Engels, "High sensitivity gas spectroscopy of porous, highly scattering solids," Opt. Lett. 33, 80-82 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).

Teichert, H.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allergy (1)

C. Bachert, K. Hormann, R. Mosges, G. Rasp, H. Riechelmann, R. Muller, H. Luckhaupt, B. A. Stuck, and C. Rudack, "An update on the diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis," Allergy 58, 176-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, and V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Alnis, B. Anderson, M. Sjöholm, G. Somesfalean, and S. Svanberg, "Laser spectroscopy of free molecular oxygen dispersed in wood materials," Appl. Phys. B 77, 691-695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, and S. Folestad, "VCSELbased oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids," Appl. Phys. B 90, 345-354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

G. Galbacs, "A review of applications and experimental improvements related to diode laser atomic spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 259-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

P. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

A. Buck, "New equations for computing vapor-pressure and enhancement factor," J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 1527-1532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Persson, M. Andersson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054,001 (2007).

J. Biophoton. (1)

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Towards accuracte in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate," J. Biophoton. 1200-203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

E. Alerstam, S. Andersson-Engels, and T. Svensson, "Improved accuracy in time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express 16(10), 434-448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Chance, J. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, and R. Boretsky, "Comparison of time-resolved and time-unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971-4975 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. Persson, M. Andersson, T. Svensson, M. Cassel-Engquist, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, "Non-intrusive optical study of gas and its exchange in human maxillary sinuses," Proc. SPIE 6628,662804 (2007).

S. Svanberg, "Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS," Proc. SPIE 7142, 714202 (2008).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Andersson, L. Persson, T. Svensson, and S. Svanberg, "Flexible lock-in detection system based on synchronized computer plug-in boards applied in sensitive gas spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 113,107 (2007).

Rhinol. Suppl. (1)

W. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, "European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007," Rhinol. Suppl. 20, 1-136 (2007).

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

R. Engelbrecht, "A compact NIR fiber-optic diode laser spectrometer for CO and CO2: analysis of observed 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy line shapes," Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 3291-3298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, Å. Lindberg, and O. Axner, "Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals," Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 1277-1354 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Svensson, "Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of spectroscopy in the photon migration regime," PhD Thesis, Lund University (2008), www.atomic.physics.lu.se/biophotonics/publications/phd_theses.

"Application Note 1040: Coherent Sampling vs. Window Sampling," Tech. rep. Maxim (2002).

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