Abstract

We demonstrated a depth-resolved 3D imaging technique based on absorption contrast using tomosynthesis. Tomosynthesis is similar to computed tomography except that the number of projections is much smaller. We constructed a tomosynthesis imaging system, which detects a transmitted continuous THz wave. We applied a backprojection method that was suitable for the constructed detection configuration, to reconstruct an image. Using this system, we imaged a test sample made from paper and reproduced characters written by pencil.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(16), 1716–1718 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Yasuda, T. Iwata, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46(30), 7518–7526 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Kiwa, J. Kondo, S. Oka, I. Kawayama, H. Yamada, M. Tonouchi, and K. Tsukada, “Chemical sensing plate with a laser-terahertz monitoring system,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3324–3327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. R. Murrill, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, C. E. Halford, S. T. Griffin, F. C. De Lucia, D. T. Petkie, and C. C. Franck, “Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification,” Appl. Opt. 47(9), 1286–1297 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Real-time measurement of temporal waveforms of a terahertz pulse using a probe pulse with a tilted pulse front,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 180–182 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Kak, and M. Slanery, “Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging,” New York: IEEE Press, (1987).
  10. D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 904–906 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Wang, B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. Dobbins and D. J. Godfrey, “Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).
  19. K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Löffler and T. May, “C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1–3 (2007).
  21. I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Rosenfeld, and C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing Second Edition Volume 1 (Academic Press, Inc., 1982).

2008

2007

T. Yasuda, T. Iwata, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46(30), 7518–7526 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler and T. May, “C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1–3 (2007).

2006

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. T. Dobbins and D. J. Godfrey, “Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1997

1995

Abbot, D.

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

Araki, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Iwata, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46(30), 7518–7526 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Bradley, I. V.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breitfeld, F.

Chang, H.-H.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-J.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

Dobbins, J. T.

J. T. Dobbins and D. J. Godfrey, “Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franck, C. C.

Godfrey, D. J.

J. T. Dobbins and D. J. Godfrey, “Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, D.

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, S. T.

Halford, C. E.

Hangyo, M.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hunsche, S.

Hwang, J.-S.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, T.

Jacobs, E. L.

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, Y.

Kawayama, I.

Kiwa, T.

Koch, M.

Kondo, J.

Lin, H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-I.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler and T. May, “C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1–3 (2007).

Lu, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

May, T.

T. Löffler and T. May, “C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1–3 (2007).

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Morikawa, O.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, S. K.

Murrill, S. R.

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Oka, S.

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petkie, D. T.

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, K.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-K.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Tani, M.

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.-C.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsukada, K.

Ung, B. S. Y.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, R.

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Iwata, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Improvement of minimum paint film thickness for THz paint meters by multiple-regression analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46(30), 7518–7526 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 717 (2005).

K. Shibuya, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, O. Morikawa, and H. Kan, “Compact and inexpensive continuous-wave subterahertz imaging system with a fiber-coupled multimode laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 161127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler and T. May, “C. am Weg, A. Alcin, B. Hils and H. G. Roskos, “Continuous-wave terahertz imaging with a hybrid system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1–3 (2007).

Electron. Lett.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, C. Baker, M. J. Evans, I. V. Bradley, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, “Phase sensitive continuous-wave THz imaging using diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 40(2), 143–145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J.-Y. Lu, H.-H. Chang, L.-J. Chen, M.-C. Tien, and C.-K. Sun, “Optoelectronic-based high-efficiency quasi-CW terahertz imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2406–2408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys.

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray Imaging and Tomography,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 247–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. T. Dobbins and D. J. Godfrey, “Digital x-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Rosenfeld, and C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing Second Edition Volume 1 (Academic Press, Inc., 1982).

C. Kak, and M. Slanery, “Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging,” New York: IEEE Press, (1987).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (704 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the principle of TS. The diagram on the left shows the geometrical relationship between the light source and the detector plane, and the diagram on the right shows how the TS images are obtained from the measured projected images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Definition of the incident angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the TS imaging system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Beam profile and (b) relationship between the beam diameter and the position in the direction of beam propagation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the paper test sample. The sheets with ‘T’, ‘H’, and ‘Z’ are the 2nd, 25th, and 50th from the top, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic procedure of the reconstruction, (a) data set definition, (b) backprojection method, (c) three-dimensional image formation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Projection images measured with the constructed TS system, without deconvolution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images reconstructed using the backprojection method without the Wiener filter, at levels corresponding to (a) the 2nd sheet, (b) the 25th sheet, and (c) the 50th sheet.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Images reconstructed using the backprojection method with the Wiener filter, at levels corresponding to (a) the 2nd sheet, (b) the 25th sheet, and (c) the 50th sheet (Media 1).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The spatial resolution in the depth direction for two positions within each character.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relationship between the FWHM from Fig. 10 and the horizontal width of the character.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Image obtained using the backprojection without the Wiener filter, (b) image with the Wiener filter, (c) and (d) profiles along the red line in (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Relationship between the normalized blur and the position in the beam direction obtained from the images with the Wiener filter applied.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σK,k(fKfk)2¯(fKfk)¯2
(fKfk)2¯=1N(i,j)RK{fK(i,j)fk(i,j)}2
(fKfk)¯=1N(i,j)RK{fK(i,j)fk(i,j)}.
BK,k=maxkσK,kσK,kmaxkσK,kminkσK,k

Metrics