Abstract

In the past decade, several persistent phosphors were intensively studied, such as CaAl2O4:Eu,Nd (blue) and SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy (green). Yellow-to-red emitting persistent phosphors have also been identified. All these phosphors are normally evaluated by measuring their afterglow as a function of time in photometric units. However, the eye sensitivity curve shifts from photopic vision to scotopic vision upon decreasing light intensity, with a corresponding decrease in red-sensitivity. Performance of red-emitting persistent phosphors thus cannot be described with usual photometry. An alternative description is presented, based on recent vision research in the intermediate (mesopic) region and using a unified system of photometry. It turns out that this effect seriously compromises the development of red-emitting persistent phosphors. This is illustrated on a number of commercially available persistent phosphors.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, "Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous effi-ciency," Opthal. Physio. Opt. 26, 225-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, "A proposed unified system of photometry," Light Res. Technol. 36, 85-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. X. Wang, Z. T. Zhang, Z. L. Tang, and Y. H. Lin, "Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2Sbased long afterglow phosphor," Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, "Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 175-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, "Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock," Science 295, 1070-1073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, "Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4:Eu2+," J. Alloy. Compd. 323, 326-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, N.

Berman, S. M.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berson, D. M.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, "Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock," Science 295, 1070-1073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bierman, A.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, "A proposed unified system of photometry," Light Res. Technol. 36, 85-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, J. D.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, "A proposed unified system of photometry," Light Res. Technol. 36, 85-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, F. A.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, "Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock," Science 295, 1070-1073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, "A proposed unified system of photometry," Light Res. Technol. 36, 85-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holsa, J.

J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, "Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4:Eu2+," J. Alloy. Compd. 323, 326-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imanari, Y.

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W. Y.

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, H.

J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, "Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4:Eu2+," J. Alloy. Compd. 323, 326-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, H.

Lastusaari, M.

J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, "Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4:Eu2+," J. Alloy. Compd. 323, 326-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.-W.

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

X. X. Wang, Z. T. Zhang, Z. L. Tang, and Y. H. Lin, "Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2Sbased long afterglow phosphor," Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, "Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 175-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. M.

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, L. Z.

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, J.

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nan, C. W.

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, "Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 175-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Navvab, M.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niittykoski, J.

J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, "Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4:Eu2+," J. Alloy. Compd. 323, 326-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nonogawa, T.

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. B.

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokomy, J.

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, "A proposed unified system of photometry," Light Res. Technol. 36, 85-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, F. R.

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

Sato, M.

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, L. T.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, "Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous effi-ciency," Opthal. Physio. Opt. 26, 225-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheedy, J.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, A.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, "Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous effi-ciency," Opthal. Physio. Opt. 26, 225-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takao, M.

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, "Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock," Science 295, 1070-1073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Z. L.

X. X. Wang, Z. T. Zhang, Z. L. Tang, and Y. H. Lin, "Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2Sbased long afterglow phosphor," Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, "Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 175-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tithof, W.

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toda, K.

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uematsu, K.

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. X.

X. X. Wang, Z. T. Zhang, Z. L. Tang, and Y. H. Lin, "Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2Sbased long afterglow phosphor," Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. B.

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. T.

X. X. Wang, Z. T. Zhang, Z. L. Tang, and Y. H. Lin, "Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2Sbased long afterglow phosphor," Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, "Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 175-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Compd. (1)

J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, "Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4:Eu2+," J. Alloy. Compd. 323, 326-330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Toda, Y. Imanari, T. Nonogawa, J. Miyoshi, K. Uematsu, and M. Sato, "Synthesis and characterization of new long persistent phosphor," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 110, 283-288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, "Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 175-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

W. Y. Jia, H. B. Yuan, L. Z. Lu, H. M. Liu, and W. M. Yen, "Phosphorescent dynamics in SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ single crystal fibers," J. Lumin. 76-7, 424-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Light Res. Technol. (1)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, "A proposed unified system of photometry," Light Res. Technol. 36, 85-111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

S. M. Berman, M. Navvab, M. J. Martin, J. Sheedy, and W. Tithof, "A comparison of traditional and high colour temperature lighting on the near acuity of elementary school children," Light. Res. Technol. 38, 41-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

X. X. Wang, Z. T. Zhang, Z. L. Tang, and Y. H. Lin, "Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2Sbased long afterglow phosphor," Mater. Chem. Phys. 80, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokomy, Y. K.-W., and P. D. Gamlin, "Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN," Nature 433, 749-754 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opthal. Physio. Opt. (1)

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, "Into the twilight zone: the complexities of mesopic vision and luminous effi-ciency," Opthal. Physio. Opt. 26, 225-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, "Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock," Science 295, 1070-1073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Munsell Color Science Laboratory, "Useful Color Data", http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/online/cie.php.

GloTech International, http://www.glotechint.com/index.html.

H. Davson, The Eye (Academic Press, 1962).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Human eye sensitivity functions at low (scotopic, V′ (λ)) and high light intensity (photopic, V (λ)); data are taken from [11].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Unified luminance as a function of wavelength for different photopic luminance values. This figure is drawn for the case of monochromatic light sources at the given wavelengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Persistent emission spectra of the selected benchmark phosphors of Table 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured persistent luminescence in units of photopic luminance for the selected benchmark phosphors.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured persistent luminescence in units of unified luminance for the selected benchmark phosphors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Properties of commercial persistent phosphor materials, selected as benchmarks. PLE = Photopic luminous efficacy; S/P = ratio of scotopic to photopic efficacy.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P=380nm830nmI(λ)V(λ) d λ .
S=380nm830nmI(λ)V'(λ) d λ .
PLE=P380nm830nmI(λ)dλ .
L=X683P+(1X)1700SX683+(1X)1700.
X=L0.0010.599.

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