Abstract

We show how stimulated parametric processes can be employed in experiments on beyond the diffraction limit to overcome the problem of low visibility obtained by using spontaneous down conversion operating in the high gain regime. We further show enhancement of the count rate by several orders when stimulated parametric processes are used. Both the two photon counts and the visibility can be controlled by the phase of the stimulating coherent beam.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. T. Kapale and J. P. Dowling, "Bootstrapping Approach for Generating Maximally Path-Entangled Photon States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. S. Agarwal, K. W. Chan, R. W. Boyd, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling "Quantum states of light produced by a high-gain optical parametric amplifier for use in quantum lithography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 270 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Towards the Heisenberg limit in magnetometry with parametric downconverted photons," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053810 (2006).
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  15. M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, "Interferometric detection of optical-phase shifts at the heisenberg limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355-1358 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, "Entangled Imaging and Wave-Particle Duality: From the Microscopic to the Macroscopic Realm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  27. J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, "Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection, " Phys. Rev. A 65, 052104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. A. Campos, C. C. Gerry, and A. Benmoussa, "Optical interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with twin Fock states and parity measurements," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023810 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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2008

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometry at the Heisenberg Limit with Coherent and Squeezed-Vacuum Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Towards the Heisenberg limit in magnetometry with parametric downconverted photons," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053810 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, "Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature (London) 429, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steuernagel and S. Scheel, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit with two mode squeezed states," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6, S66-S70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, "Entangled Imaging and Wave-Particle Duality: From the Microscopic to the Macroscopic Realm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Campos, C. C. Gerry, and A. Benmoussa, "Optical interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with twin Fock states and parity measurements," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, "Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection, " Phys. Rev. A 65, 052104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Steuernagel, "de Broglie wavelength reduction for multiphoton wave packet," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D??Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon diffraction and quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. P. Dowling, "Correlated input-port, matter-wave interferometer: Quantum-noise limits to the atom-laser gyroscope," Phys. Rev. A 57, 4736-4746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Y. Ou, "Fundamental quantum limit in precision phase measurement," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2598-2609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. H. Souto Ribeiro and G. A. Barbosa, "Direct and ghost interference in double-slit experiments with coincidence measurements," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, "Interferometric detection of optical-phase shifts at the heisenberg limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355-1358 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, "Experiment on nonclassical 4th-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957-2965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

B. Y. Zel??dovich and D. N. Klyshko, "Statistics of field in parametric luminescence," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40-44 (1969).

Abrams, D. S.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, K. W. Chan, R. W. Boyd, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling "Quantum states of light produced by a high-gain optical parametric amplifier for use in quantum lithography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Heisenberg limited Sagnac interferometry," Opt. Express 15, 6798-6808 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Towards the Heisenberg limit in magnetometry with parametric downconverted photons," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053810 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbosa, G. A.

P. H. Souto Ribeiro and G. A. Barbosa, "Direct and ghost interference in double-slit experiments with coincidence measurements," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benmoussa, A.

R. A. Campos, C. C. Gerry, and A. Benmoussa, "Optical interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with twin Fock states and parity measurements," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, "Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, "Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boto, A. N.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

G. S. Agarwal, K. W. Chan, R. W. Boyd, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling "Quantum states of light produced by a high-gain optical parametric amplifier for use in quantum lithography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R.W.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, "Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, "Entangled Imaging and Wave-Particle Duality: From the Microscopic to the Macroscopic Realm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braunstein, S. L.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, "Interferometric detection of optical-phase shifts at the heisenberg limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355-1358 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, H.

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, K. W. Chan, R. W. Boyd, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling "Quantum states of light produced by a high-gain optical parametric amplifier for use in quantum lithography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campos, R. A.

R. A. Campos, C. C. Gerry, and A. Benmoussa, "Optical interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with twin Fock states and parity measurements," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W.

Chekhova, M. V.

M. D??Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon diffraction and quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D??Angelo, M.

M. D??Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon diffraction and quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Martini, F.

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kapale and J. P. Dowling, "Bootstrapping Approach for Generating Maximally Path-Entangled Photon States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Agarwal, K. W. Chan, R. W. Boyd, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling "Quantum states of light produced by a high-gain optical parametric amplifier for use in quantum lithography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 270 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, "Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection, " Phys. Rev. A 65, 052104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Dowling, "Correlated input-port, matter-wave interferometer: Quantum-noise limits to the atom-laser gyroscope," Phys. Rev. A 57, 4736-4746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gasparoni, S.

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, "Entangled Imaging and Wave-Particle Duality: From the Microscopic to the Macroscopic Realm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerry, C. C.

R. A. Campos, C. C. Gerry, and A. Benmoussa, "Optical interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with twin Fock states and parity measurements," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, R. G.

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. X.

Guo, G. C.

Holland, M. J.

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, "Interferometric detection of optical-phase shifts at the heisenberg limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355-1358 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howell, J. C.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, "Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. F.

Jakeman, E.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapale, K. T.

K. T. Kapale and J. P. Dowling, "Bootstrapping Approach for Generating Maximally Path-Entangled Photon States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiess, T. E.

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyshko, D. N.

B. Y. Zel??dovich and D. N. Klyshko, "Statistics of field in parametric luminescence," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40-44 (1969).

Kok, P.

H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, "Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection, " Phys. Rev. A 65, 052104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolkiran, A.

A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Heisenberg limited Sagnac interferometry," Opt. Express 15, 6798-6808 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Towards the Heisenberg limit in magnetometry with parametric downconverted photons," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053810 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larchuk, T.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, "Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection, " Phys. Rev. A 65, 052104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. H.

Lugiato, L. A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, "Entangled Imaging and Wave-Particle Duality: From the Microscopic to the Macroscopic Realm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundeen, J. S.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature (London) 429, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, "Experiment on nonclassical 4th-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957-2965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M. W.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature (London) 429, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagasako, E. M.

G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagata, T.

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O??Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316, 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O??Brien, J. L.

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O??Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316, 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, R.

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O??Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316, 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, Z. Y.

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, G. C. Guo, and Z. Y. Ou, "Four-photon interference with asymmetric beam splitters," Opt. Lett. 32, 1320 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, "Fundamental quantum limit in precision phase measurement," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2598-2609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, "Experiment on nonclassical 4th-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957-2965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pezzé, L.

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometry at the Heisenberg Limit with Coherent and Squeezed-Vacuum Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, M. H.

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, B. E. A.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O??Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316, 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheel, S.

O. Steuernagel and S. Scheel, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit with two mode squeezed states," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6, S66-S70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y.

M. D??Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon diffraction and quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y. H.

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smerzi, A.

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometry at the Heisenberg Limit with Coherent and Squeezed-Vacuum Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souto Ribeiro, P. H.

P. H. Souto Ribeiro and G. A. Barbosa, "Direct and ghost interference in double-slit experiments with coincidence measurements," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A. M.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature (London) 429, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steuernagel, O.

O. Steuernagel and S. Scheel, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit with two mode squeezed states," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6, S66-S70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Steuernagel, "de Broglie wavelength reduction for multiphoton wave packet," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. W.

Takeuchi, S.

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O??Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316, 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tapster, P. R.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ursin, R.

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitelli, C.

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walther, P.

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. J.

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, "Experiment on nonclassical 4th-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957-2965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. P.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zel??dovich, B. Y.

B. Y. Zel??dovich and D. N. Klyshko, "Statistics of field in parametric luminescence," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40-44 (1969).

Zou, X. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, "Experiment on nonclassical 4th-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957-2965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.

O. Steuernagel and S. Scheel, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit with two mode squeezed states," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6, S66-S70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature (London)

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature (London) 429, 161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Walther, J. W. Pan, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Ursin, S. Gasparoni, and A. Zeilinger, "De Broglie wavelength of a non-local four-photon state," Nature (London) 429, 158-161 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

H. Lee, P. Kok, N. J. Cerf, and J. P. Dowling, "Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 65, 030101(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolkiran and G. S. Agarwal, "Towards the Heisenberg limit in magnetometry with parametric downconverted photons," Phys. Rev. A 74, 053810 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Steuernagel, "de Broglie wavelength reduction for multiphoton wave packet," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033820 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, "Correlated input-port, matter-wave interferometer: Quantum-noise limits to the atom-laser gyroscope," Phys. Rev. A 57, 4736-4746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, "Fundamental quantum limit in precision phase measurement," Phys. Rev. A 55, 2598-2609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, M. H. Rubin, T. E. Kiess, and C. O. Alley, "Two-photon interference in a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 49, 4243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang, and L. Mandel, "Experiment on nonclassical 4th-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957-2965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Souto Ribeiro and G. A. Barbosa, "Direct and ghost interference in double-slit experiments with coincidence measurements," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Sciarrino, C. Vitelli, F. De Martini, R. G. Glasser, H. Cable, and J. P. Dowling, "Experimental sub-Rayleigh resolution by an unseeded high-gain optical parametric amplifier for quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. A 77, 012324 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, "Creation of large-photon-number path entanglement conditioned on photodetection, " Phys. Rev. A 65, 052104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Campos, C. C. Gerry, and A. Benmoussa, "Optical interferometry at the Heisenberg limit with twin Fock states and parity measurements," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, E. Jakeman, T. Larchuk, R. A. Campos, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "2-photon interference in a mach-zehnder interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1348-1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, "Entangled Imaging and Wave-Particle Duality: From the Microscopic to the Macroscopic Realm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, R.W. Boyd, and J. C. Howell, "Quantum and Classical Coincidence Imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D??Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon diffraction and quantum lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, "Interferometric detection of optical-phase shifts at the heisenberg limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355-1358 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Agarwal, R. W. Boyd, E. M. Nagasako, and S. J. Bentley, "Comment on "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit"," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1389-1389 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pezzé and A. Smerzi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometry at the Heisenberg Limit with Coherent and Squeezed-Vacuum Light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum interferometric optical lithography: Exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Kapale and J. P. Dowling, "Bootstrapping Approach for Generating Maximally Path-Entangled Photon States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O??Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316, 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP Lett.

B. Y. Zel??dovich and D. N. Klyshko, "Statistics of field in parametric luminescence," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 9, 40-44 (1969).

Other

O. Glöckl, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, "Quantum interferometry," in Lectures in quantum information (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Weinheim, 2006), pp. 575-590.

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, "Ghost Imaging: What is quantum, what is not," http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612070.

Cited By

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Using an input from non-degenerate stimulated parametric down-conversion for determination of phase via photon-photon correlations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Stimulated emission enhanced two-photon counts for various phases of the coherent field at the gain g=0.5. The horizontal line shows the interferometric phase. The pump phase ϕ is fixed at π. The counts are in units of two-photon coincidence rates coming from spontaneous down-conversion process. The modulus of the coherent field |α| is chosen such that the coincidences coming from SPDC and the coherent fields are equal to each other. The dashed line shows the two-photon counts for the case of spontaneous process. (b) The same with (a) at the gain g=2.0. Here, the counts for the case of spontaneous process (dashed line) is multiplied by a factor of 103.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) Stimulated emission enhanced visibility of two-photon counts for various phases (red and green lines) of the coherent field with respect to the gain g. The pump phase ϕ is fixed at π. The modulus of the coherent field |α 0| is chosen such that the coincidences coming from SPDC and the coherent fields are equal to each other. The dashed line shows the visibility of two-photon counts in the case of photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The ratio of the two-photon coincidences coming from the stimulated process to the spontaneous process for various phases of the coherent beams at the (a) low and (b) high gain limits respectively. The pump phase is fixed at π and the modulus of the coherent field |α| is chosen such that the coincidences coming from SPDC and the coherent fields are equal to each other.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( a ̂ 3 b ̂ 3 ) = 1 2 ( 1 i i 1 ) ( 1 0 0 e i ψ ) 1 2 ( 1 i i 1 ) ( μ ( a ̂ 0 + α 0 ) + v ( b ̂ 0 + β 0 * ) μ ( b ̂ 0 + β 0 ) + v ( a ̂ 0 + α 0 * ) ) ,
μ = cosh ( g ) ,
v = e i ϕ sinh ( g ) .
I a ̂ a ̂ 3 a ̂ 3 = sinh 2 ( g ) + α 0 2 [ 1 + 2 sinh 2 ( g ) + sinh ( 2 g ) cos ( ϕ 2 θ ) ] ,
I a ̂ b ̂ a ̂ 3 b ̂ 3 b ̂ 3 a ̂ 3 = A { 1 + V 1 V ( 1 + cos ( 2 ψ ) ) } .
V = B A + B ,
A = sinh 4 ( g ) + 2 α 0 2 sinh 2 ( g ) [ 1 + 2 sinh 2 ( g ) + sinh ( 2 g ) cos ( ϕ 2 θ ) ] ,
B = 1 2 { ( 1 + sinh 2 ( g ) ) sinh 2 ( g ) + α 0 2 sinh ( 2 g ) [ sinh ( 2 g ) + ( 1 + 2 sinh 2 ( g ) ) cos ( ϕ 2 θ ) ]
+ α 0 4 [ 1 + 2 sinh 2 ( g ) + sinh ( 2 g ) cos ( ϕ 2 θ ) ] 2 } .
V 1 + sinh 2 ( g ) 1 + 3 sinh 2 ( g ) ,
I a ̂ b ̂ 2 sinh 4 ( g ) + sinh 2 ( g ) .
V 1 4 + α 0 2 ( 1 + cos ( Δ ) ) + α 0 4 ( 1 + cos ( Δ ) ) 2 3 4 + 3 α 0 2 ( 1 + cos ( Δ ) ) + α 0 4 ( 1 + cos ( Δ ) ) 2 ,
I a ̂ b ̂ 2 sinh 4 ( g ) { 1 + 4 α 0 2 ( 1 + cos ( Δ ) ) + 2 α 0 4 ( 1 + cos ( Δ ) ) 2 } .

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