Abstract

The influence of oceanic constituents on the polarized reflectance measured at the top of atmosphere (TOA) over open ocean waters in one visible band is investigated. First, radiative transfer modelling is used to quantify the effects of biomass concentration on the TOA polarized signal for a wide range of observation geometries. The results showed that the TOA polarized reflectance remains insensitive to variations in the chlorophyll a concentration whatever the geometrical conditions in oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, which represent about 90% of the global ocean. The invariance of the polarized signal with water content is explained by the prevailing influence of both atmospheric effects and skylight reflections at the sea surface on the polarization state of the radiation reaching the top of atmosphere level. The simulations also revealed that multidirectional and polarized TOA reflectances obtained in the visible spectrum are powerful tools for the discrimination between the aerosol optical properties. In the second part of the paper, the theoretical results are rigorously validated using original multiangle and polarized measurements acquired by PARASOL satellite sensor, which is used for the first time for ocean color purposes. First, a statistical analysis of the geometrical features of PARASOL instrument showed that the property of invariance of the TOA polarized reflectance is technically verified for more than 85% of viewed targets, and thus, indicating the feasibility of separating between the atmospheric and oceanic parameters from space remotely sensed polarized data. Second, PARASOL measurements acquired at regional and global scales nicely corroborated the simulations. This study also highlighted that the radiometric performance of the polarized visible wavelength of PARASOL satellite sensor can be used either for the aerosol detection or for atmospheric correction algorithms over open ocean waters regardless of the biomass concentration.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

M. Chami, "Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinell, "PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance," Appl. Opt. 46, 5435-5451 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

G. Miecznik, R. Illing, S. Petroy, and I. N. Sokolik, "Sensitivity metric approach for retrieval of aerosol properties from multiangular and multispectral polarized radiances," Appl. Opt. 44, 4186-4204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: Improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi:10.1029/2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Progress in Oceanography 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

A. Vermeulen, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Retrieval of the scattering and microphysical properties of aerosols from ground-based optical measurements including polarization. I. Method," Appl. Opt. 39, 6207-6220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentrationin oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Zhao, Z. B. Gong, H. L. Hu, M. Tanaka, and T. Hayasaka, "Simultaneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light," Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Breon, J. L. Deuze, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "Oceanic primary production 1. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 43-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with seawifs: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-458 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and R. Santer, "Fourier-series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere ocean system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483-494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, "Measurement of the Mueller Matrix for Phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322-1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1971 (1)

G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, "Radiance and Polarization of Earths Atmosphere with Haze and Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187-1198 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentrationin oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "Oceanic primary production 1. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 43-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentrationin oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailleul, T.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boesche, E.

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Progress in Oceanography 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Progress in Oceanography 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bracco, G.

Breon, F. M.

F. M. Breon, J. L. Deuze, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentrationin oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentrationin oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cosnefroy, H.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: Improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Breon, J. L. Deuze, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and R. Santer, "Fourier-series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere ocean system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483-494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, C.

Dilligeard, E.

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

Fougnie, B.

Fry, E. S.

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gagne, G.

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z. B.

Gordon, H. R.

Hagolle, O.

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinell, "PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance," Appl. Opt. 46, 5435-5451 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

Herman, M.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: Improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Vermeulen, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Retrieval of the scattering and microphysical properties of aerosols from ground-based optical measurements including polarization. I. Method," Appl. Opt. 39, 6207-6220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Breon, J. L. Deuze, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and R. Santer, "Fourier-series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere ocean system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483-494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holland, A. C.

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H. L.

Illing, R.

Kattawar, G. W.

G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, "Radiance and Polarization of Earths Atmosphere with Haze and Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187-1198 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. H. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi:10.1029/2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinell, "PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance," Appl. Opt. 46, 5435-5451 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lallart, P.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: Improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J. F.

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: Improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. H. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi:10.1029/2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miecznik, G.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, Y.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentrationin oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "Oceanic primary production 1. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 43-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, S.

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J. M.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parol, F.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, "Results of POLDER in-flight calibration," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550-1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, G.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petroy, S.

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass and G. W. Kattawar, "Radiance and Polarization of Earths Atmosphere with Haze and Clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187-1198 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Preusker, R.

Ras, J.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roger, B.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, "Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: Improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruffel, C.

Ruhtz, T.

Sano, I.

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2398-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, and R. Santer, "Fourier-series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere ocean system," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483-494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

Stammes, P.

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Progress in Oceanography 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Susana, S.

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

S. Mukai, I. Sano, and T. Takashima, "Investigation of atmospheric aerosols based on polarization measurements and scattering simulations," Opt. Rev. 3, 487-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Tanaka, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, "Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329-15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Breon, J. L. Deuze, D. Tanre, and M. Herman, "Validation of spaceborne estimates of aerosol loading from Sun photometer measurements with emphasis on polarization," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17187-17195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tieche, F.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, H. Claustre, M. Babin, A. Bricaud, J. Ras, and F. Tieche, "Optical properties of the "clearest" natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 217-229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tinell, C.

Toratani, M.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989-17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, A.

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Progress in Oceanography 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, "Measurement of the Mueller Matrix for Phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322-1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, "Measurement of the Mueller Matrix for Ocean Water," Appl. Opt. 23, 4427-4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

Wang, M. H.

M. H. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi:10.1029/2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waquet, F.

F. Waquet, J. F. Leon, P. Goloub, J. Pelon, D. Tanre, and J. L. Deuze, "Maritime and dust aerosol retrieval from polarized and multispectral active and passive sensors," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. S.

Appl. Opt. (12)

A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, "Scattering of polarized light by Polydisperse Systems of irregular particles," Appl. Opt. 9, 1113-1121 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, "Measurement of the Mueller Matrix for Ocean Water," Appl. Opt. 23, 4427-4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with seawifs: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-458 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Zhao, Z. B. Gong, H. L. Hu, M. Tanaka, and T. Hayasaka, "Simultaneous determination of the aerosol complex index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light," Appl. Opt. 36, 7992-8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Vermeulen, C. Devaux, and M. Herman, "Retrieval of the scattering and microphysical properties of aerosols from ground-based optical measurements including polarization. I. Method," Appl. Opt. 39, 6207-6220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2398-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Miecznik, R. Illing, S. Petroy, and I. N. Sokolik, "Sensitivity metric approach for retrieval of aerosol properties from multiangular and multispectral polarized radiances," Appl. Opt. 44, 4186-4204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, "Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements," Appl. Opt. 45, 8790-8805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinell, "PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance," Appl. Opt. 46, 5435-5451 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies In Oceanography 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "Oceanic primary production 1. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 43-55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polar diagrams of absolute difference Δρpol_rc between the Rayleigh-corrected polarized reflectance calculated for any given chlorophyll a concentration and the one calculated for a chlorophyll a concentration of 0.03 mg m-3. The circular dot lines represent the viewing angles by step of 10° (numbered from 0° to 60° in the figure). The solar zenith angles θs are 30° and 50° and the Shettle and Fenn [19] aerosol model M98 is used. The calculations are shown for a clear atmosphere (τa(550)=0.1). Note that a grey color scale is used when Δρpol_rc is lower than PARASOL noise equivalent polarized reflectance (i.e., 8.5×10-4).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Same as Fig. 1, for a moderately turbid atmosphere (τa(550)=0.5).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polar diagrams of the absolute differences between the Rayleigh-corrected polarized reflectance calculated for the M98 aerosol model taken as a reference and the Rayleigh-corrected polarized reflectance calculated for the aerosol models C70 and T70, respectively. The chlorophyll a concentration is fixed to 0.3 mg m-3, the solar zenith angles are 30° and 50° for a clear atmosphere (τa(550nm)=0.1) (first column), and a turbid atmosphere (τa(550nm)=0.5) (second column). The geometries for which Δρpol_rc is lower than PARASOL noise equivalent polarized reflectance (i.e., 8.5×10-4) are in coloured grey.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PARASOL satellite overpasses used for the statistical analysis regarding the geometrical conditions of observations (a) above the Pacific Ocean (the longitude at the equator is 150°W), and (b) above the Atlantic Ocean (the longitude at the equator is 30°W). The latitude varies from 70°N to 70°S.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Level 2 satellite images acquired by PARASOL above the North Western part of the Mediterranean Sea on May 5th 2006: (a) aerosol optical depth at 865 nm, (b) Angstrom coefficient and (c) chlorophyll a concentration. Three targets were selected : one target (symbol *) is characterized by a clear atmosphere (τa(865nm)=0.1) and oligotrophic conditions (Chl=0.2 mg m-3), one target (symbol ×) is characterized with similar atmospheric conditions than the target represented by the symbol * except bloom conditions (Chl=2.0 mg m-3) are considered, and one target (symbol +) is characterized by a moderately turbid atmosphere (τa(865nm)=0.3) and similar oceanic conditions (Chl=0.2 mg m-3) than the target represented by the symbol *.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Variation of the top of atmosphere unpolarized (upper curves) and polarized (lower curves) reflectance measured by PARASOL at 490 nm with respect to the scattering angle θ scatt when the targets are located within the bloom patch (Chl=2.0 mg m-3) and out of the bloom patch (i.e., in oligotrophic conditions, Chl=0.2 mg m-3) and when the atmospheric conditions are similar for each target, (b) polar diagram showing the geometry of multidirectional observations of the two selected targets. The dashed lines represent the azimuth and viewing angles. The solar zenith angle is 30°. The solid lines represent the isolines of scattering angles by step of 20°. The symbols are similar as in Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Variation of the top of atmosphere polarized reflectance measured by PARASOL at 490 nm with respect to the scattering angle θscatt for targets located outside the bloom (Chl=0.2 mg m-3) in the case of a clear (τa(865nm)=0.1) and moderately turbid (τa(865nm)=0.3) atmosphere, (b) polar diagram showing the geometry of multidirectional observations of the two selected targets. The solar zenith angle is 27°.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Percentage of targets viewed by PARASOL for which the polarized top of atmosphere reflectance is insensitive to chlorophyll a concentration along two satellite overpasses covering the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The longitudes at the equator of satellite overpasses above the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are 30°W and 150°W respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Standard deviation of the polarized top of atmosphere reflectance ρpol_rc (TOA) measured by PARASOL for satellite overpasses covering the Atlantic Ocean. The latitude of the satellite overpasses ranges from 60°N to 60°S. Images were selected along the year 2006 to be representative of different water compositions. The mean standard deviation was calculated for two cases: (i) when targets are viewed for similar atmospheric conditions (i.e. aerosol optical depth at 865nm of 0.1 and angstrom exponent of 0.17) and (ii) when targets are viewed for variable atmospheric conditions. The water content in suspended matter is variable (the chlorophyll a concentration ranges from 0.02 to 7 mg m-3). The number of targets used for each calculation of the mean standard deviation is 1000.

Equations (5)

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a ph ( λ ) = A ph ( λ ) [ Chl ] Ep ( λ )
b ph ( λ ) = 0.416 [ Chl ] 0.766 ( 550 λ )
ρ pol = π Q 2 + U 2 E d
Δ ρ pol _ rc ( Chl ) = ρ pol _ rc ( Chl ) ρ pol _ rc ( Chl ref )
RMSE = 1 n i = 1 n ( ρ pol _ rc ( bloom , Ψ i ) ρ pol _ rc ( no _ bloom , Ψ i ) ) 2

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