Abstract

We propose and demonstrate evanescently-decoupled, solid-angle-optimized distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) for AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The thickness of each DBR layer is tuned to the wavelength slightly longer than the emission peak of the active medium in order to maximize the radiated power integrated over the top surface. In addition, to increase the horizontal radiation through the side facets, the glancing-angle reflectivity at the AlInP/AlAs interface is improved by employing an AlAs layer thicker than the attenuation length of the evanescent field. With the improved DBR, the integrated output power of AlGaInP LEDs is enhanced by a factor of 1.9 in comparison to those of LEDs with conventional DBRs. Additional 1.25-fold enhancement is observed by incorporating an square-lattice hole array (a=1200nm) into the top GaP surface by a conventional photolithography.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. Th. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203–2216 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Xu, H. Fang, and Z. Lin, “Expanding high-reflection range in a dielectric multilayer reflector by disorder and inhomogenity,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, 445–449 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Chiou, C. Lee, C. Huang, and C. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457–459 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).
  15. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2006 (5)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Th. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. Xu, H. Fang, and Z. Lin, “Expanding high-reflection range in a dielectric multilayer reflector by disorder and inhomogenity,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, 445–449 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Chiou, C. Lee, C. Huang, and C. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bochkareva, N. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

S. Chiou, C. Lee, C. Huang, and C. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, E. I.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chiou, S.

S. Chiou, C. Lee, C. Huang, and C. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choe, Y. H.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. H.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K. D.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

Christenson, G.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chui, H. C.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

-Coman, C. C.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Danner, A. J.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Efremov, A. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fang, H.

J. Xu, H. Fang, and Z. Lin, “Expanding high-reflection range in a dielectric multilayer reflector by disorder and inhomogenity,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, 445–449 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, Th.

Th. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gill, W. N.

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gorbunov, R. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Götz, W.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grillot, P.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Höfler, G. E.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

-Holcomb, M. O.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

S. Chiou, C. Lee, C. Huang, and C. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.-W.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hueschen, M.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, H.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kern, R. S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

Kish, F. A.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kocot, C. P.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Larinovich, D. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

S. Chiou, C. Lee, C. Huang, and C. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2052–2054 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. D.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. J. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Optics Express 14, 8454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leisher, P. O.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

Lin, Z.

J. Xu, H. Fang, and Z. Lin, “Expanding high-reflection range in a dielectric multilayer reflector by disorder and inhomogenity,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, 445–449 (2001).
[Crossref]

Loh, B.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lowery, C.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

O’Shea, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ojha, M.

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Plawsky, J. L.

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Posselt, J.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rebane, Yu. T.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sasser, G.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Th. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.-C.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shreter, Yu. G.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stockman, S. A.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Streubel, K.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

Subramanya, S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tan, I.-H.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, T. S.

M. R. Krames, M. O. -Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. C. -Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tarkhin, D. V.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40, 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133514 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wirth, R.

T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1360–1362 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xi, J. -Q.

J. -Q. Xi, M. Ojha, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Internal high-reflectivity omni-directional reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “Highpower AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379–3381 (2001).
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T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, and K. D. Choquette, “Photonic crystal structure effect on the enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of a red LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1876–1878 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Detailed epitaxial structure of the AlGaInP LEDs with a conventional quarter-wave DBR (b) Schematics of the vertical radiation through the top surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Angular reflectance of the conventional DBR. The inset shows a typical spectrum of the AlGaInP LED. (b) Schematics of the horizontal radiation through four side facets.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The normalized angle integrated reflectivity (Rv) versus the maximum reflectance angle (θM). The inset shows the angular reflectance for the conventional- and improved DBRs (θM=17.5°) at the center wavelength (λ=625nm). (b) Reflectance spectrum varying the first AlAs layer (tL1) thickness

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Cross section TEM image of the conventional- and improved DBRs (b) I-V characteristic curves for the devices with both DBRs

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) L-I (light-current) curve for the devices with both DBRs. The output enhancement versus the injected current is also plotted. (b) Measurement of the angular radiation profile for the devices with both DBRs (before encapsulation)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the periodic pattern defined into the top p-GaP surface (b) L-I curves for devices with conventional DBRs, the optimized DBRs with flat surface and the optimized DBRs with two-dimensional photonic crystal.

Equations (1)

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R v ( θ M ) = 0 θ c R θ M ( θ , λ ) I ( λ ) sin θ d θ d λ R v ( θ M = 0 ° )

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