Abstract

We use broadband frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) and cross-correlation FROG (XFROG) techniques to study the details of the supercontinuum generated in extruded soft glass SF6 photonic crystal fibers pumped with envelope-modulated 100 fs pulses at telecom wavelengths. Strong temporal jitter of solitons is observed with highly non-Gaussian statistics, which is related to the statistics of the pump pulse envelope shape fluctuations. The ripples present on the input pulse seed the modulation instability at high pump powers, affecting soliton fission. Numerical modeling confirms strong sensitivity of the soliton fission process to the presence of ripples on the pump pulse envelope.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. von der Linde,"Characterization of the noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 39, 201-217 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, "Coherence Degradation in the Process of Supercontinuum Generation in an Optical Fiber," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215-223 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Bellini, T. W. Hansch, "Phase-locked white-light continuum pulses: toward a universal optical frequencycomb synthesizer," Opt. Lett. 25, 1049-1051 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, "Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 27, 445-447 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 269-277 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Ames, S. Ghosh, R. S. Windeler, A. L. Gaeta, and S. T. Cundiff, "Excess noise generation during spectral broadening in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 279-284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum," Opt. Express 11, 2697-2703 (2003).
  9. F. Lu and W. H. Knox, "Generation of a broadband continuum with high spectral coherence in tapered singlemode optical fibers," Opt. Express 12, 347-353 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Kobtsev, S. V. Kukarin, N. V. Fateev, and S. V. Smirnov, "Coherent, polarization and temporal properties of self-frequency shifted solitons generated in polarization-maintaining microstructured fibre," Appl. Phys. B 81, 265-269 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Zeylikovich, V. Kartazaev, and R. R. Alfano, "Spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1453-1460 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, "Optical rogue waves," Nature (London) 450, 1054-1058 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton "Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 16, 3644-3651 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).
  15. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J. P. Gordon, and D. S. Chemla, "Broad bandwidths from frequency-shifting solitons in fibers," Opt. Lett. 14, 370-372 (1989).
  17. M. N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J. P. Gordon, and D. S. Chemla, "Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum in fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1149-1158 (1989).
  18. J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Characterizing Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers around 1550 nm Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237-265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. G. Omenetto, B. P. Luce, D. Yarotski, and A. J. Taylor, "Observation of chirped soliton dynamics at ⌊ = 1.55 m in a single-mode optical fiber with frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 24,1392-1394 (1999).
  20. X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O‘Shea, A. P. Shreenath, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum," Opt. Lett. 27, 1174-1176 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O‘Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Crosscorrelation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).
  22. T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 11969-1980 (2004).
  23. S. N. Bagayev, V. I. Denisov, V. F. Zakhar’yash, V. M. Klement’ev, S. M. Kobtsev, I. I. Korel’, S. A. Kuznetsov, S. V. Kukarin, V. S. Pivtsov, S. V. Smirnov, and N. V. Fateev, "Spectral and temporal characteristics of a supercontinuum in tapered optical fibres," Quantum Electron. 34, 1107-1115 (2004).
  24. S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, M. V. Alfimov, K. V. Dukelskii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondratev, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Spectrally and temporally isolated Raman soliton features in microstructure fibers visualized by cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating," Appl. Phys. B 79289-292 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George,W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).
  26. A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, "Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for studying ultrashort-pulse nonlinear dynamics in arbitrary fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 4408-4411 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 m in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, "Interaction of an Optical Soliton with a Dispersive Wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Lett. 31, 1624-1626 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Time-spectrally-resolved ultrafast nonlinear dynamics in small-core photonic crystal fibers: Experiment and modelling," Opt. Express 12, 6498-6507 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, and J. C. Knight, "Four-wave mixing of solitons with radiation and quasinondispersive wave packets at the short-wavelength edge of a supercontinuum," Opt. Express 14, 9854-9863 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Podlipensky, P. Szarniak, N. Y. Joly, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, "Bound soliton pairs in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1653-1662 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, and E. Vanin, "Adaptive control of femtosecond soliton self-frequency shift in fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 271-273 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

I. Zeylikovich, V. Kartazaev, and R. R. Alfano, "Spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1453-1460 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, "Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for studying ultrashort-pulse nonlinear dynamics in arbitrary fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 4408-4411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kobtsev, S. V. Kukarin, N. V. Fateev, and S. V. Smirnov, "Coherent, polarization and temporal properties of self-frequency shifted solitons generated in polarization-maintaining microstructured fibre," Appl. Phys. B 81, 265-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, "Interaction of an Optical Soliton with a Dispersive Wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. N. Bagayev, V. I. Denisov, V. F. Zakhar’yash, V. M. Klement’ev, S. M. Kobtsev, I. I. Korel’, S. A. Kuznetsov, S. V. Kukarin, V. S. Pivtsov, S. V. Smirnov, and N. V. Fateev, "Spectral and temporal characteristics of a supercontinuum in tapered optical fibres," Quantum Electron. 34, 1107-1115 (2004).

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, M. V. Alfimov, K. V. Dukelskii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondratev, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Spectrally and temporally isolated Raman soliton features in microstructure fibers visualized by cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating," Appl. Phys. B 79289-292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu and W. H. Knox, "Generation of a broadband continuum with high spectral coherence in tapered singlemode optical fibers," Opt. Express 12, 347-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, and E. Vanin, "Adaptive control of femtosecond soliton self-frequency shift in fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 271-273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 11969-1980 (2004).

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Time-spectrally-resolved ultrafast nonlinear dynamics in small-core photonic crystal fibers: Experiment and modelling," Opt. Express 12, 6498-6507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum," Opt. Express 11, 2697-2703 (2003).

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Ames, S. Ghosh, R. S. Windeler, A. L. Gaeta, and S. T. Cundiff, "Excess noise generation during spectral broadening in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1999

1998

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, "Coherence Degradation in the Process of Supercontinuum Generation in an Optical Fiber," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215-223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Characterizing Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers around 1550 nm Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237-265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

1986

D. von der Linde,"Characterization of the noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 39, 201-217 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, "Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 269-277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Ames, S. Ghosh, R. S. Windeler, A. L. Gaeta, and S. T. Cundiff, "Excess noise generation during spectral broadening in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kobtsev, S. V. Kukarin, N. V. Fateev, and S. V. Smirnov, "Coherent, polarization and temporal properties of self-frequency shifted solitons generated in polarization-maintaining microstructured fibre," Appl. Phys. B 81, 265-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde,"Characterization of the noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 39, 201-217 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, M. V. Alfimov, K. V. Dukelskii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondratev, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Spectrally and temporally isolated Raman soliton features in microstructure fibers visualized by cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating," Appl. Phys. B 79289-292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature (London)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, "Optical rogue waves," Nature (London) 450, 1054-1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O‘Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Crosscorrelation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George,W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Time-spectrally-resolved ultrafast nonlinear dynamics in small-core photonic crystal fibers: Experiment and modelling," Opt. Express 12, 6498-6507 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum," Opt. Express 11, 2697-2703 (2003).

F. Lu and W. H. Knox, "Generation of a broadband continuum with high spectral coherence in tapered singlemode optical fibers," Opt. Express 12, 347-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 m in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, and J. C. Knight, "Four-wave mixing of solitons with radiation and quasinondispersive wave packets at the short-wavelength edge of a supercontinuum," Opt. Express 14, 9854-9863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Podlipensky, P. Szarniak, N. Y. Joly, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, "Bound soliton pairs in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 1653-1662 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton "Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 16, 3644-3651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Characterizing Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers around 1550 nm Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237-265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, "Coherence Degradation in the Process of Supercontinuum Generation in an Optical Fiber," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215-223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, "Noise amplification during supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 944-946 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J. P. Gordon, and D. S. Chemla, "Broad bandwidths from frequency-shifting solitons in fibers," Opt. Lett. 14, 370-372 (1989).

F. G. Omenetto, B. P. Luce, D. Yarotski, and A. J. Taylor, "Observation of chirped soliton dynamics at ⌊ = 1.55 m in a single-mode optical fiber with frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 24,1392-1394 (1999).

M. Bellini, T. W. Hansch, "Phase-locked white-light continuum pulses: toward a universal optical frequencycomb synthesizer," Opt. Lett. 25, 1049-1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, "Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 27, 445-447 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O‘Shea, A. P. Shreenath, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum," Opt. Lett. 27, 1174-1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, and E. Vanin, "Adaptive control of femtosecond soliton self-frequency shift in fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 271-273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and J. C. Knight, Opt. Lett. 31, 1624-1626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, "Interaction of an Optical Soliton with a Dispersive Wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

S. N. Bagayev, V. I. Denisov, V. F. Zakhar’yash, V. M. Klement’ev, S. M. Kobtsev, I. I. Korel’, S. A. Kuznetsov, S. V. Kukarin, V. S. Pivtsov, S. V. Smirnov, and N. V. Fateev, "Spectral and temporal characteristics of a supercontinuum in tapered optical fibres," Quantum Electron. 34, 1107-1115 (2004).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

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