Abstract

Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytometry for quantitation of adipocyte size distribution. CARS cytometry could be a new modality for quantitative analysis with vibrational selectivity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. M. Shapiro, Practical Flow Cytometry, 4th ed. (Wiley Liss, New York, 2003).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 197A–208A (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827–840 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. H.-Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Microfluidic chemical cytometry based on modulation of local field strength,” Chem. Commun.3528–3530 (2006).
  10. H. Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Electroporation of Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Channel with Geometric Variation,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5158–5164 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Bahlmann, P. T. So, M. Kirber, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, W. McGonagle, and K. Bellve, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) at a frame rate beyond 600 Hz,” Opt. Express 15, 10991–10998 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. H. Kim, C. Buehler, and P. T. C. So, “High-Speed, Two-Photon Scanning Microscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6004–6009 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

M. Muller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Chem. PhysChem. 8, 2156–2170 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bahlmann, P. T. So, M. Kirber, R. Reich, B. Kosicki, W. McGonagle, and K. Bellve, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) at a frame rate beyond 600 Hz,” Opt. Express 15, 10991–10998 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 197A–208A (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Electroporation of Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Channel with Geometric Variation,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5158–5164 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. P. Perfetto, P. K. Chattopadhyay, and M. Roederer, “Seventeen-colour flow cytometry: unravelling the immune system,” Nat. Rev. Immun. 4, 648–655 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827–840 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

K. H. Kim, C. Buehler, and P. T. C. So, “High-Speed, Two-Photon Scanning Microscope,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6004–6009 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, “Recent Advances in Flow Cytometry: Application to the Diagnosis of Hematologic Malignancy,” Blood 90, 2863–2892 (1997).
[PubMed]

Bahlmann, K.

Bellve, K.

Benjamin, K. R.

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Book, L. D.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brent, R.

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buehler, C.

Chattopadhyay, P. K.

S. P. Perfetto, P. K. Chattopadhyay, and M. Roederer, “Seventeen-colour flow cytometry: unravelling the immune system,” Nat. Rev. Immun. 4, 648–655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 197A–208A (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827–840 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chin, T. E.

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, T. D.

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colman-Lerner, A.

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duffy, D. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foon, K. A.

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, “Recent Advances in Flow Cytometry: Application to the Diagnosis of Hematologic Malignancy,” Blood 90, 2863–2892 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, A.

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grotberg, J. B.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, W.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huh, D.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jennings, C. D.

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, “Recent Advances in Flow Cytometry: Application to the Diagnosis of Hematologic Malignancy,” Blood 90, 2863–2892 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kamotani, Y.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. C.

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

Kirber, M.

Kosicki, B.

Langohr, I. M.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, T. T.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Locker, M. J.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

H. Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Electroporation of Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Channel with Geometric Variation,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5158–5164 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Microfluidic chemical cytometry based on modulation of local field strength,” Chem. Commun.3528–3530 (2006).

McDonald, J. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGonagle, W.

Muller, M.

M. Muller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Chem. PhysChem. 8, 2156–2170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Perfetto, S. P.

S. P. Perfetto, P. K. Chattopadhyay, and M. Roederer, “Seventeen-colour flow cytometry: unravelling the immune system,” Nat. Rev. Immun. 4, 648–655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reich, R.

Roederer, M.

S. P. Perfetto, P. K. Chattopadhyay, and M. Roederer, “Seventeen-colour flow cytometry: unravelling the immune system,” Nat. Rev. Immun. 4, 648–655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schueller, O. J. A.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, H. M.

H. M. Shapiro, Practical Flow Cytometry, 4th ed. (Wiley Liss, New York, 2003).

Shi, R.

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

So, P. T. C.

Sturek, M.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takayama, S.

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Y.

H. Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Electroporation of Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Channel with Geometric Variation,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5158–5164 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Microfluidic chemical cytometry based on modulation of local field strength,” Chem. Commun.3528–3530 (2006).

Whitesides, G. M.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827–840 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yu, R. C.

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

M. Muller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Chem. PhysChem. 8, 2156–2170 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

H. Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Electroporation of Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Channel with Geometric Variation,” Anal. Chem. 78, 5158–5164 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonl myelin in live spinal tissues.,” Biophys. J. 89, 581–591 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, “Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 92, 3251–3259 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blood (1)

C. D. Jennings and K. A. Foon, “Recent Advances in Flow Cytometry: Application to the Diagnosis of Hematologic Malignancy,” Blood 90, 2863–2892 (1997).
[PubMed]

Chem. PhysChem. (1)

M. Muller and A. Zumbusch, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Chem. PhysChem. 8, 2156–2170 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electrophoresis (1)

T. D. Chung and H. C. Kim, “Recent advances in miniaturized microfluidic flow cytometry for clinical use,” Electrophoresis 28, 4511–4520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827–840 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

A. Gordon, A. Colman-Lerner, T. E. Chin, K. R. Benjamin, R. C. Yu, and R. Brent, “Single-cell quantification of molecules and rates using open-source microscope-based cytometry,” Nat. Methods 4, 175–181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Immun. (1)

S. P. Perfetto, P. K. Chattopadhyay, and M. Roederer, “Seventeen-colour flow cytometry: unravelling the immune system,” Nat. Rev. Immun. 4, 648–655 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

D. Huh, W. Gu, Y. Kamotani, J. B. Grotberg, and S. Takayama, “Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles,” Physiol. Meas. 26, R73–R98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H.-Y. Wang and C. Lu, “Microfluidic chemical cytometry based on modulation of local field strength,” Chem. Commun.3528–3530 (2006).

H. M. Shapiro, Practical Flow Cytometry, 4th ed. (Wiley Liss, New York, 2003).

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