Abstract

In this letter, we report an experimental realization of distributing entangled photon pairs over 100 km of dispersion-shifted fiber. In the experiment, we used a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide to generate the time-energy entanglement and superconducting single-photon detectors to detect the photon pairs after 100 km. We also demonstrate that the distributed photon pairs can still be useful for quantum key distribution and other quantum communication tasks.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2007 (4)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hübel, M. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7853, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet QKD using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, X. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Correlated photon-pair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguide with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock,” Opt. Express 15, 10288 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hadfield, M. Stevens, S. Gruber, A. Miller, R. Schwall, R. Mirin, and S.-W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13, 10846–10853 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995), pp. 60–87.

Ali-Khan, I.

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet QKD using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, X.-H.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hübel, M. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7853, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broadbent, C. J.

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet QKD using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192WDMenvironment,” postdeadline paper, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC2006), paper PDP35.

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Clauser, J. F.

J. F. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1996).
[Crossref]

de Ridmatten, H.

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fejer, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Feng, F.-Y.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franson, J. D.

J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimura, M.

Furst, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys,  74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gruber, S.

Hadfield, R.

Holt, R. A.

J. F. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1996).
[Crossref]

Honjo, T.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horne, M.

J. F. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1996).
[Crossref]

Howell, J. C.

I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet QKD using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hübel, H.

Inoue, K.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jennewein, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, X.-M.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaltenbaek, R.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamada, H.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192WDMenvironment,” postdeadline paper, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC2006), paper PDP35.

Kurz, J.

Langrock, C.

Lederer, T.

Lee, K. F.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192WDMenvironment,” postdeadline paper, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC2006), paper PDP35.

Legre, M.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, N.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192WDMenvironment,” postdeadline paper, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC2006), paper PDP35.

Lindenthai, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lindenthal, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lorünser, T.

Marcikic, I.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyenburg, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miller, A.

Mirin, R.

Nam, S. W.

Nam, S.-W.

Nishida, Y.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okunev, O.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ömer, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.-W.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parameswaran, K.

Peng, C.-Z.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perdigues, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Poppe, A.

Rarity, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys,  74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Roussev, R.

Route, R.

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmitt-manderbach, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schwall, R.

Semenov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shimony, A.

J. F. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1996).
[Crossref]

Smironov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sodnik, Z.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stevens, M.

Tadanaga, O.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Takesue, H.

Tian, B.-L.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tittel, W.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys,  74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanner, M.

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walther, P.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weier, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yang, B.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys,  74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hübel, M. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorünser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7853, (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Correlated photon-pair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguide with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock,” Opt. Express 15, 10288 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smironov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthai, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144km,” Nat. Phys. 3, 481 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

I. Marcikic, H. de Ridmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long distance teleportation of qubits at teclecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. F. Clauser, M. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1996).
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I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, “Large-alphabet QKD using energy-time entangled bipartite states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060503 (2007).
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I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, “Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled Photon pairs over 13 km: towards satilite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005);
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Rev. Mod. Phys (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys,  74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192WDMenvironment,” postdeadline paper, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC2006), paper PDP35.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995), pp. 60–87.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme for generation and detection of time-energy entanglement. The small dotted pulses represent the possible photon pairs, which can be generated during the long time span of the pump light, while the dotted red envelope of the photon pairs is from the long pump.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the experimental setup. TBPF: tunable band-pass filter. PPLN1: a RPE PPLN waveguide for second harmonic generation of the pump source. PPLN2: a fiber pigtailed asymmetric Y-junction RPE PPLN waveguide for parametric down-conversion. LPF: long-pass filter to remove the 780 nm pump light and other parasitics. BPF: 0.8-nm-wide bandpass filter. SSPD: superconducting single-photon detector. TIA: time interval analyzer. Solid lines represent optical fibers and dotted lines represent free-space propagation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Two-photon interference pattern (a) without and (b) with 100-km-long fiber (b). T1 is the temperature of the PLC MZI in the signal channel while T2 is the temperature in the idler channel. The Y-axis represents the coincidence rate per signal photon with an average of 0.5 million signal photons.

Equations (1)

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V = μ η ch 2 η d 2 μ η ch 2 η d 2 + 2 μ 2 η ch 2 η d 2 + 8 μ η ch η d D t + 8 D 2 t 2 + ζ μ η ch 2 η d 2

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