Abstract

We investigated the possibility to trigger real-scale lightning using ionized filaments generated by ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere. Under conditions of high electric field during two thunderstorms, we observed a statistically significant number of electric events synchronized with the laser pulses, at the location of the filaments. This observation suggests that corona discharges may have been triggered by filaments.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, “Artificially Triggered Lightning above Land,” Nature 257, 212–214 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, “A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida,” Atmos. Res. 76, 503–517 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, T. Yamanaka, Z. Kawasaki, and K. Tsubakimoto, “Laser-triggered lightning in field experiments,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 199–202 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Power dependence of dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propgating in air,” Opt. Express 4, 223–228 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, “Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 89, 2511–2521 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, “Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms,” Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 105, 285–302 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, “A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573–3576 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).
  25. P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).
  26. B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  28. P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. of Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146–158 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, “Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, “Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, “A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida,” Atmos. Res. 76, 503–517 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. of Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, “A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573–3576 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Power dependence of dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propgating in air,” Opt. Express 4, 223–228 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, T. Yamanaka, Z. Kawasaki, and K. Tsubakimoto, “Laser-triggered lightning in field experiments,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 199–202 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, “Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 89, 2511–2521 (1984).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, “Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms,” Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 105, 285–302 (1979).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, “Artificially Triggered Lightning above Land,” Nature 257, 212–214 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aihara, Y.

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
[Crossref]

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

André, Y.-B.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baronavski, A. P.

T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, “Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barret, L.

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, “Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 89, 2511–2521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Béjot, P.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bergé, L.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Blanchot, N.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonacina, L.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonville, O.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boscheron, A.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bourayou, R.

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Brook, M.

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Canal, P.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Castaldi, M.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Champeaux, S.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chien, C.-Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davis, D.

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Deparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Diels, J.-C.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. of Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146–158 (2001).
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X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
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Du, D.

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Extermann, J.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eybertberard, A.

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, “Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 89, 2511–2521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fieux, R.

R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, “Artificially Triggered Lightning above Land,” Nature 257, 212–214 (1975).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Frey, S.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

Gary, C.

R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, “Artificially Triggered Lightning above Land,” Nature 257, 212–214 (1975).
[Crossref]

Gray, G.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Guet, C.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hamlin, T.

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, “A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573–3576 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
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Harlin, J.

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, “A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573–3576 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, O.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holden, D.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hubert, P.

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, “Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 89, 2511–2521 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. Fieux, C. Gary, and P. Hubert, “Artificially Triggered Lightning above Land,” Nature 257, 212–214 (1975).
[Crossref]

Idone, V.

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Johnston, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kalkner, W.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, Z.

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Klingbeil, L.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krehbiel, P. R.

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, “A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573–3576 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ladouceur, H. D.

T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, “Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laroche, P.

P. Hubert, P. Laroche, A. Eybertberard, and L. Barret, “Triggered Lightning in New-Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 89, 2511–2521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lascoux, N.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lepage, C.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. T.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ling, W. J.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Lopez, J.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Lu, X.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Marmande, L.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mathis, J.

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Mazataud, E.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

McCrary, S.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mennerat, G.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mercure, H. P.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miki, M.

M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mondelain, D.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. B.

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Moret, M.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Motokoshi, S.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patissou, L.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Payne, J.

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petrova, T. B.

T. B. Petrova, H. D. Ladouceur, and A. P. Baronavski, “Numerical modeling of the electrical breakdown and discharge properties of laser-generated plasma channels,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 066405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Prade, B.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

Prevot, V.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raffestin, D.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rakov, V. A.

V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, “A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida,” Atmos. Res. 76, 503–517 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rambo, K. J.

V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, and K. J. Rambo, “A review of ten years of triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida,” Atmos. Res. 76, 503–517 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rambo, P.

P. Rambo, J. Schwarz, and J.-C. Diels, “High-voltage electrical discharges induced by an ultrashort-pulse UV laser system,” J. of Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 146–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rethmeier, K.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. R.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Ribolzi, J.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rison, W.

W. Rison, R. J. Thomas, P. R. Krehbiel, T. Hamlin, and J. Harlin, “A GPS-based three-dimensional lightning mapping system: Initial observations in central New Mexico,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3573–3576 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Rizk, F. A. M.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rohwetter, P.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salamé, R.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salmon, E.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sauerbrey, R.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schlie, L. A. V.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
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Scholz, A.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Shao, X. M.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

Sheng, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
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M. Miki, Y. Aihara, and T. Shindo, “Development of long gap discharges guided by a pulsed CO2 laser,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phus 26, 1244–1252 (1993).
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Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
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S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
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Squier, J.

Standler, R. B.

R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, “Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms,” Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 105, 285–302 (1979).
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Stanley, M.

P. R. Krehbiel, X. M. Shao, M. Stanley, G. Gray, S. McCrary, R. Scott, J. Lopez, C. R. Rhodes, and D. Holden, “Interferometer observations of natural and triggered lightning at Langmuir Laboratory,” EOS, Transactions. AGU 75, 99 (1994).

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Stecklum, B.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
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Teng, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
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Theberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Deparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pépin, and F. A. M. Rizk, “The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 688–700 (1999).
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Vinçotte, A.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Winn, W.

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

Winn, W. P.

R. B. Standler and W. P. Winn, “Effects of Coronae on Electric-Fields beneath Thunderstorms,” Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 105, 285–302 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Stanley, P. R. Krehbiel, D. Davis, C. B. Moore, J. Mathis, W. P. Winn, W. Rison, M. Brook, V. Idone, and J. Payne, EOS, Transactions. AGU75, 104 (1994).

Wolf, J. P.

P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
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R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 466–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wöste, L.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wright, E. M.

Yamanaka, C.

Yamanaka, T.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, H.

Yu, J.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 026611 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range non-linear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Skupin, L. Bergé, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, G. Méjean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 046602 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. - Appl. Phys. 20, 183–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Megavolt discharges triggered and guided with laser filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. H.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z. Y.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, P. Rohwetter, Y.-B. André, J. Kasparian, B. Prade, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, E. Salmon, W. Winn, L. A. V. Schlie, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of fs-TW laser filaments in adverse atmospheric conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 785–789 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 627–630 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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P. Béjot, L. Bonacina, J. Extermann, M. Moret, J. P. Wolf, R. Ackermann, N. Lascoux, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, L. Bergé, S. Champeaux, C. Guet, N. Blanchot, O. Bonville, A. Boscheron, P. Canal, M. Castaldi, O. Hartmann, C. Lepage, L. Marmande, E. Mazataud, G. Mennerat, L. Patissou, V. Prevot, D. Raffestin, and J. Ribolzi, “32 Terawatt Atmospheric White-Light Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151106 (2007).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Statistical analysis of the electric events detected during thunderstorm T1. (a) Rate of pulses synchronized with the laser repetition rate; (b) Corresponding statistical confidence level (1-α sync , see text for details). The color scale is transparent below 98% (i.e. for error risks above 2%), leaving the topographical background uncovered.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electric events during a high-field period of thunderstorm T1. Triggered events contribute to the excess of detected events when the laser is shot (green blocks)

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