Abstract

We present a small, lightweight two-photon fiberscope and demonstrate its suitability for functional imaging in the intact brain. Our device consists of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for efficient delivery of near-IR femtosecond laser pulses, a spiral fiber-scanner for resonant beam steering, and a gradient-index lens system for fluorescence excitation, dichroic beam splitting, and signal collection. Fluorescence light is remotely detected using a standard photomultiplier tube. All optical components have 1 mm dimensions and the microscope’s headpiece weighs only 0.6 grams. The instrument achieves micrometer resolution at frame rates of typically 25 Hz with a field-of-view of up to 200 microns. We demonstrate functional imaging of calcium signals in Purkinje cell dendrites in the cerebellum of anesthetized rats. The microscope will be easily portable by a rat or mouse and thus should enable functional imaging in freely behaving animals.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Seibel, T. Soper, R. Johnston, and R. Glenny, "Ultrathin laser scanning bronchoscope and guidance system for the peripheral lung," Lung Cancer 49, S162-S162 (2005).
  2. E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, "Novel ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope for cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, Ab125-Ab125 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, "Technology insight: optical coherence tomography - current status and future development," Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine 3, 154-162 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Yaqoob, J. G. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, "Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Helmchen, "Miniaturization of fluorescence microscopes using fibre optics," Exp. Physiol. 87, 737-745 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. D. Mehta, J. C. Jung, B. A. Flusberg, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14, 617-628 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nature Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Fu and M. Gu, "Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy," J. Microsc. 226, 195-206 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 3121-3133 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, "A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope: High-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals," Neuron 31, 903-912 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Adelsberger, O. Garaschuk, and A. Konnerth, "Cortical calcium waves in resting newborn mice," Nat. Neurosci. 8, 988-990 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Murayama, E. Perez-Garci, H. R. Luscher, and M. E. Larkum, "Fiberoptic system for recording dendritic calcium signals in layer 5 neocortical pyramidal cells in freely moving rats," J. Neurophysiol. 98, 1791-1805 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nature Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902-904 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Göbel, J. N. D. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, "Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective," Opt. Lett. 29, 2521-2523 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. G. Ouzounov, K. D. Moll, M. A. Foster, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and A. L. Gaeta, "Delivery of nanojoule femtosecond pulses through large-core microstructured fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1513-1515 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Lung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope," Opt. Lett. 30, 2272-2274 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. D. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Lett. 31, 1076-1078 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, "Nonlinear optical microscopy based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5528-5534 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Sawinski and W. Denk, "Miniature random-access fiber scanner for in vivo multiphoton imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 102, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Piyawattanametha, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, H. J. Ra, D. S. Lee, O. Solgaard, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fast-scanning two-photon fluorescence imaging based on a microelectromechanical systems two-dimensional scanning mirror," Opt. Lett. 31, 2018-2020 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Fu, A. Jain, H. Xie, C. Cranfield, and M. Gu, "Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror," Opt. Express 14, 1027-1032 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Monfared, N. H. Blevins, E. L. M. Cheung, J. C. Jung, G. Popelka, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo Imaging of mammalian cochlear blood flow using fluorescence microendoscopy," Otology & Neurotology 27, 144-152 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Vincent, U. Maskos, I. Charvet, L. Bourgeais, L. Stoppini, N. Leresche, J. P. Changeux, R. Lambert, P. Meda, and D. Paupardin-Tritsch, "Live imaging of neural structure and function by fibred fluorescence microscopy," EMBO Rep 7, 1154-1161 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, "A full-color scanning fiber endoscope," Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI.Proceedings of the SPIE. 6083, 9-16 (2006).
  33. S. W. Grill and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Method to calculate lateral and axial gain factors of optical setups with a large solid angle," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2658-2665 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. J. Engelbrecht and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Resolution enhancement in a light-sheet-based microscope (SPIM)," Opt. Lett. 31, 1477-1479 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. R. Sullivan, A. Nimmerjahn, D. V. Sarkisov, F. Helmchen, and S. S. Wang, "In vivo calcium imaging of circuit activity in cerebellar cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 94, 1636-1644 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, "In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 100, 7319-7324 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  37. W. Göbel and F. Helmchen, "New angles on neuronal dendrites in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 98, 3770-3779 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J.-F. Cardoso, "BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION and INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS," http://www.tsi.enst.fr/~cardoso/guidesepsou.html.
  39. D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, "Imaging large-scale neural activity with cellular resolution in awake, mobile mice," Neuron 56, 43-57 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, "Novel ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope for cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, Ab125-Ab125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu and M. Gu, "Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy," J. Microsc. 226, 195-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Murayama, E. Perez-Garci, H. R. Luscher, and M. E. Larkum, "Fiberoptic system for recording dendritic calcium signals in layer 5 neocortical pyramidal cells in freely moving rats," J. Neurophysiol. 98, 1791-1805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sawinski and W. Denk, "Miniature random-access fiber scanner for in vivo multiphoton imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 102, (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Göbel and F. Helmchen, "New angles on neuronal dendrites in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 98, 3770-3779 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, "Imaging large-scale neural activity with cellular resolution in awake, mobile mice," Neuron 56, 43-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, "A full-color scanning fiber endoscope," Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI.Proceedings of the SPIE. 6083, 9-16 (2006).

A. Monfared, N. H. Blevins, E. L. M. Cheung, J. C. Jung, G. Popelka, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo Imaging of mammalian cochlear blood flow using fluorescence microendoscopy," Otology & Neurotology 27, 144-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Vincent, U. Maskos, I. Charvet, L. Bourgeais, L. Stoppini, N. Leresche, J. P. Changeux, R. Lambert, P. Meda, and D. Paupardin-Tritsch, "Live imaging of neural structure and function by fibred fluorescence microscopy," EMBO Rep 7, 1154-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, "Technology insight: optical coherence tomography - current status and future development," Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine 3, 154-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, J. G. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, "Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, A. Jain, H. Xie, C. Cranfield, and M. Gu, "Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror," Opt. Express 14, 1027-1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. D. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Lett. 31, 1076-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Engelbrecht and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Resolution enhancement in a light-sheet-based microscope (SPIM)," Opt. Lett. 31, 1477-1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Piyawattanametha, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, H. J. Ra, D. S. Lee, O. Solgaard, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fast-scanning two-photon fluorescence imaging based on a microelectromechanical systems two-dimensional scanning mirror," Opt. Lett. 31, 2018-2020 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nature Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Seibel, T. Soper, R. Johnston, and R. Glenny, "Ultrathin laser scanning bronchoscope and guidance system for the peripheral lung," Lung Cancer 49, S162-S162 (2005).

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nature Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Adelsberger, O. Garaschuk, and A. Konnerth, "Cortical calcium waves in resting newborn mice," Nat. Neurosci. 8, 988-990 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Sullivan, A. Nimmerjahn, D. V. Sarkisov, F. Helmchen, and S. S. Wang, "In vivo calcium imaging of circuit activity in cerebellar cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 94, 1636-1644 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, "Nonlinear optical microscopy based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5528-5534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Lung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope," Opt. Lett. 30, 2272-2274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Göbel, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, "Distortion-free delivery of nanojoule femtosecond pulses from a Ti : sapphire laser through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 1285-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Göbel, J. N. D. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, "Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective," Opt. Lett. 29, 2521-2523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Mehta, J. C. Jung, B. A. Flusberg, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14, 617-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 3121-3133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902-904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, "In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 100, 7319-7324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, "A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope: High-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals," Neuron 31, 903-912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

W. Denk and K. Svoboda, "Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick," Neuron 18, 351-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.

A. D. Mehta, J. C. Jung, B. A. Flusberg, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14, 617-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

EMBO Rep

P. Vincent, U. Maskos, I. Charvet, L. Bourgeais, L. Stoppini, N. Leresche, J. P. Changeux, R. Lambert, P. Meda, and D. Paupardin-Tritsch, "Live imaging of neural structure and function by fibred fluorescence microscopy," EMBO Rep 7, 1154-1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Physiol.

F. Helmchen, "Miniaturization of fluorescence microscopes using fibre optics," Exp. Physiol. 87, 737-745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, "Novel ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope for cholangioscopy and pancreatoscopy," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, Ab125-Ab125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Sawinski and W. Denk, "Miniature random-access fiber scanner for in vivo multiphoton imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 102, (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Z. Yaqoob, J. G. Wu, E. J. McDowell, X. Heng, and C. H. Yang, "Methods and application areas of endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

L. Fu and M. Gu, "Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy," J. Microsc. 226, 195-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 3121-3133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Murayama, E. Perez-Garci, H. R. Luscher, and M. E. Larkum, "Fiberoptic system for recording dendritic calcium signals in layer 5 neocortical pyramidal cells in freely moving rats," J. Neurophysiol. 98, 1791-1805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Sullivan, A. Nimmerjahn, D. V. Sarkisov, F. Helmchen, and S. S. Wang, "In vivo calcium imaging of circuit activity in cerebellar cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 94, 1636-1644 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Göbel and F. Helmchen, "New angles on neuronal dendrites in vivo," J. Neurophysiol. 98, 3770-3779 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lasers Surg. Med.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, "Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177-183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lung Cancer

E. Seibel, T. Soper, R. Johnston, and R. Glenny, "Ultrathin laser scanning bronchoscope and guidance system for the peripheral lung," Lung Cancer 49, S162-S162 (2005).

Nat. Neurosci.

H. Adelsberger, O. Garaschuk, and A. Konnerth, "Cortical calcium waves in resting newborn mice," Nat. Neurosci. 8, 988-990 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and I. K. Jang, "Technology insight: optical coherence tomography - current status and future development," Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine 3, 154-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Methods

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nature Methods 2, 941-950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nature Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neuron

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, "A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope: High-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals," Neuron 31, 903-912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk and K. Svoboda, "Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick," Neuron 18, 351-357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, "Imaging large-scale neural activity with cellular resolution in awake, mobile mice," Neuron 56, 43-57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Knittel, L. Schnieder, G. Buess, B. Messerschmidt, and T. Possner, "Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system," Opt. Commun. 188, 267-273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. D. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Lett. 31, 1076-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Engelbrecht and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Resolution enhancement in a light-sheet-based microscope (SPIM)," Opt. Lett. 31, 1477-1479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Piyawattanametha, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, H. J. Ra, D. S. Lee, O. Solgaard, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fast-scanning two-photon fluorescence imaging based on a microelectromechanical systems two-dimensional scanning mirror," Opt. Lett. 31, 2018-2020 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Lung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope," Opt. Lett. 30, 2272-2274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Ouzounov, K. D. Moll, M. A. Foster, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and A. L. Gaeta, "Delivery of nanojoule femtosecond pulses through large-core microstructured fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1513-1515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902-904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Göbel, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, "Distortion-free delivery of nanojoule femtosecond pulses from a Ti : sapphire laser through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 1285-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Göbel, J. N. D. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, "Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective," Opt. Lett. 29, 2521-2523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Otology & Neurotology

A. Monfared, N. H. Blevins, E. L. M. Cheung, J. C. Jung, G. Popelka, and M. J. Schnitzer, "In vivo Imaging of mammalian cochlear blood flow using fluorescence microendoscopy," Otology & Neurotology 27, 144-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A

C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, "In vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal networks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 100, 7319-7324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the SPIE.

E. J. Seibel, R. S. Johnston, and C. D. Melville, "A full-color scanning fiber endoscope," Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications VI.Proceedings of the SPIE. 6083, 9-16 (2006).

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

J.-F. Cardoso, "BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION and INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS," http://www.tsi.enst.fr/~cardoso/guidesepsou.html.

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