Abstract

Cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) application for tunable lasing devices has become a subject of study for many research groups. In particular, embedding the liquid crystal in an elastomer allows tunability by simple mechanical stretching. Here we report a study on the dependence of the selective reflection band on the stretching together with measurements of film relaxation after stretching, and we try to discuss and elucidate the role of crosslinking in the polymer matrix. We obtained laser devices made with cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers in a three-layer configuration, where an isotropic layer containing a laser dye is sandwiched between two CLC elastomers: in this work we show some preliminary but quantitative results on laser tunability.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  5. K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev, R. B. Meyer, and Y. Mao, “Untwisting of a cholesteric elastomer by a mechanical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2320–2323 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. A. Bermel and M. Warner, “Photonic band structure of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 056614 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 051704 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
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  10. V. I. Kopp, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369–416 (2003).
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  11. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2005).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  15. G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51, S108–S118 (2006).
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  16. P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 2358–2363 (2005).
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    [Crossref]
  20. G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the Photonic Properties of a Cholesteric Elastomer under Biaxial Stress,” Macromolecules 38, 1357–1363 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. S. Courty, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Chirality transfer and stereoselectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks,” Phys. Rev. E 73011803 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. V. Crivello, B. Falk, and M. R. Zonca Jr, “Photoinduced cationic ring-opening frontal polymerizations of oxetanes and oxiranes,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 42, 1630–1646 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. R. Skinner and R. E. Whitcher, “Measurement of the radius of a high-power laser beam near the focus of a lens,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 237–238 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, “Photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Eur. Phys. J. E 12, 553–564 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2007 (3)

I. D. W. Samuel and G.A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (7)

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Mechanically tunable optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14, 10494–10499 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Courty, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Chirality transfer and stereoselectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks,” Phys. Rev. E 73011803 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9, 36–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14, 1236–1242 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51, S108–S118 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (7)

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 2358–2363 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Xie and R. Zhang, “Liquid crystal elastomers, networks and gels: advanced smart materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2529–2550 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the Photonic Properties of a Cholesteric Elastomer under Biaxial Stress,” Macromolecules 38, 1357–1363 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. V. Crivello, B. Falk, and M. R. Zonca Jr, “Photoinduced cationic ring-opening frontal polymerizations of oxetanes and oxiranes,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 42, 1630–1646 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

V. I. Kopp, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Kasano, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically tunable waveguide laser based on ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4026–4028 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, “Photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Eur. Phys. J. E 12, 553–564 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. A. Bermel and M. Warner, “Photonic band structure of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 056614 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 051704 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. T. Kim and H. Finkelmann, “Cholesteric liquid single-crystal elastomers obtained by the anisotropic deswelling method,” Macromol. Rapid. Comm. 22, 429–433 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev, R. B. Meyer, and Y. Mao, “Untwisting of a cholesteric elastomer by a mechanical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2320–2323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

H. Finkelmann, “Liquid crystalline polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 26, 816–824 (1987).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. R. Skinner and R. E. Whitcher, “Measurement of the radius of a high-power laser beam near the focus of a lens,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 237–238 (1972).
[Crossref]

Amemiya, K.

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barberi, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bartolino, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P. A.

P. A. Bermel and M. Warner, “Photonic band structure of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 056614 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bobrovsky, A.

Broer, D. J.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chanishvili, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. J.

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chiappetta, D.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 2358–2363 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chilaya, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chilaya, G. S.

G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51, S108–S118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cicuta, P.

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 051704 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9, 36–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Courty, S.

S. Courty, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Chirality transfer and stereoselectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks,” Phys. Rev. E 73011803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Crivello, J. V.

J. V. Crivello, B. Falk, and M. R. Zonca Jr, “Photoinduced cationic ring-opening frontal polymerizations of oxetanes and oxiranes,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 42, 1630–1646 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cuypers, R.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Doyle, C.

Falk, B.

J. V. Crivello, B. Falk, and M. R. Zonca Jr, “Photoinduced cationic ring-opening frontal polymerizations of oxetanes and oxiranes,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 42, 1630–1646 (2004).
[Crossref]

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the Photonic Properties of a Cholesteric Elastomer under Biaxial Stress,” Macromolecules 38, 1357–1363 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Kim and H. Finkelmann, “Cholesteric liquid single-crystal elastomers obtained by the anisotropic deswelling method,” Macromol. Rapid. Comm. 22, 429–433 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Finkelmann, “Liquid crystalline polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 26, 816–824 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ford, A. D.

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9, 36–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Genack, A.

Genack, A. Z.

V. I. Kopp, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gimenez, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Green, M. M.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ha, N. Y.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harris, K. D.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14, 1236–1242 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kasano, M.

M. Kasano, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically tunable waveguide laser based on ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4026–4028 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. T.

S. T. Kim and H. Finkelmann, “Cholesteric liquid single-crystal elastomers obtained by the anisotropic deswelling method,” Macromol. Rapid. Comm. 22, 429–433 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kniesel, S.

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the Photonic Properties of a Cholesteric Elastomer under Biaxial Stress,” Macromolecules 38, 1357–1363 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Kopp, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Lin, T. H.

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. H.

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lubb, J.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mao, Y.

M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev, R. B. Meyer, and Y. Mao, “Untwisting of a cholesteric elastomer by a mechanical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2320–2323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R. B.

M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev, R. B. Meyer, and Y. Mao, “Untwisting of a cholesteric elastomer by a mechanical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2320–2323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, V.

Moreira, M.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9, 36–42 (2006).
[Crossref]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oriol, L.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, M.

M. Kasano, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically tunable waveguide laser based on ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4026–4028 (2003).
[Crossref]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petriashvili, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pinol, M.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and G.A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanford, R. L.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 2358–2363 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheibe, P.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the Photonic Properties of a Cholesteric Elastomer under Biaxial Stress,” Macromolecules 38, 1357–1363 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, “Photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Eur. Phys. J. E 12, 553–564 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shibaev, P. V.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, and A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 2358–2363 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skinner, D. R.

D. R. Skinner and R. E. Whitcher, “Measurement of the radius of a high-power laser beam near the focus of a lens,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 237–238 (1972).
[Crossref]

Song, M. H.

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, and H. Finkelmann, “Defect mode emission of a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, “Photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Eur. Phys. J. E 12, 553–564 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tajbakhsh, A. R.

S. Courty, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Chirality transfer and stereoselectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks,” Phys. Rev. E 73011803 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 051704 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takanishi, Y.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Terentjev, E. M.

S. Courty, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Chirality transfer and stereoselectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks,” Phys. Rev. E 73011803 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 051704 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev, R. B. Meyer, and Y. Mao, “Untwisting of a cholesteric elastomer by a mechanical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2320–2323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Warner and E. M. Terentjev, Liquid Crystal Elastomers (Oxford science publications, 2003).

Tomoe, N.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, G.A.

I. D. W. Samuel and G.A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Oosten, C. L.

K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
[Crossref]

Warner, M.

P. A. Bermel and M. Warner, “Photonic band structure of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 056614 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Warner, E. M. Terentjev, R. B. Meyer, and Y. Mao, “Untwisting of a cholesteric elastomer by a mechanical field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2320–2323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Warner and E. M. Terentjev, Liquid Crystal Elastomers (Oxford science publications, 2003).

Whitcher, R. E.

D. R. Skinner and R. E. Whitcher, “Measurement of the radius of a high-power laser beam near the focus of a lens,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 5, 237–238 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. W.

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14, 1236–1242 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xie, P.

P. Xie and R. Zhang, “Liquid crystal elastomers, networks and gels: advanced smart materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2529–2550 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, P. C.

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, K.

M. Kasano, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically tunable waveguide laser based on ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4026–4028 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

P. Xie and R. Zhang, “Liquid crystal elastomers, networks and gels: advanced smart materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2529–2550 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhang, Z. Q.

V. I. Kopp, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369–416 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14, 1236–1242 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zonca Jr, M. R.

J. V. Crivello, B. Falk, and M. R. Zonca Jr, “Photoinduced cationic ring-opening frontal polymerizations of oxetanes and oxiranes,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 42, 1630–1646 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mat. (2)

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, and A. Mazzulla, “Lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals: two new strategies of tuning,” Adv. Mat. 16, 791–794 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light emitting diodes,” Adv. Mat. 19, 565–568 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-mode lasing with lowered threshold in three-layered hetero-cholesteric liquid-crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. 18, 193–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. (1)

H. Finkelmann, “Liquid crystalline polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 26, 816–824 (1987).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Kasano, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically tunable waveguide laser based on ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4026–4028 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. H. Wu, A. Y. G. Fuh, J. H. Liu, and P. C. Yang, “Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  83, 5353–5355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G.A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1272–1295 (2007).
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Crystallogr. Rep. (1)

G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51, S108–S118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, “Photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Eur. Phys. J. E 12, 553–564 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

P. Xie and R. Zhang, “Liquid crystal elastomers, networks and gels: advanced smart materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 2529–2550 (2005).
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K. D. Harris, R. Cuypers, P. Scheibe, C. L. van Oosten, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, J. Lubb, and D. J. Broer, “Large amplitude light-induced motion in high elastic modulus polymer actuators,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 5043–5048 (2005).
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J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. (1)

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J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. (1)

J. V. Crivello, B. Falk, and M. R. Zonca Jr, “Photoinduced cationic ring-opening frontal polymerizations of oxetanes and oxiranes,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 42, 1630–1646 (2004).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takanishi, N. Tomoe, N. Y. Ha, T. Toyooka, S. Nishimura, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Defect-Mode Lasing from a Three-Layered Helical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3510–3513 (2007).
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Macromol. Rapid. Comm. (1)

S. T. Kim and H. Finkelmann, “Cholesteric liquid single-crystal elastomers obtained by the anisotropic deswelling method,” Macromol. Rapid. Comm. 22, 429–433 (2001).
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Macromolecules (2)

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the Photonic Properties of a Cholesteric Elastomer under Biaxial Stress,” Macromolecules 38, 1357–1363 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, “Color Changing Cholesteric Polymer Films Sensitive to Amino Acids,” Macromolecules 39, 3986–3992 (2006).
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Mater. Today (1)

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9, 36–42 (2006).
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Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. E (4)

S. Courty, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Chirality transfer and stereoselectivity of imprinted cholesteric networks,” Phys. Rev. E 73011803 (2006).
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P. A. Bermel and M. Warner, “Photonic band structure of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 056614 (2002).
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P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers,” Phys. Rev. E 65, 051704 (2002).
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P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, “Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
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V. I. Kopp, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing in chiral photonic structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369–416 (2003).
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Other (1)

M. Warner and E. M. Terentjev, Liquid Crystal Elastomers (Oxford science publications, 2003).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic view of CLC elastomer under uniaxial strain imposed along x. Contraction of z dimension, λzz , leads to a continuous shift of the photonic bandgap.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Director angle ϕ against position along the pitch z, for a system with anisotropy r=1.2. Without stress, at λ=1, ϕ increases linearly with the position q̃z. As λ increases, the curvature changes until the point when the system undergoes a chirality-loss transition (shown by a arrow), at which the original helical structure becomes a non-chiral periodic structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Components and the reaction scheme of UV-crosslinkable choleseric polysiloxane; (b) Components and the reaction scheme of the dye-containing modified side-chain polysiloxane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scheme of the three layer sandwiched configuration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmittance spectra of non-crosslinked and crosslinked CLC films under uniaxial strain, under right- and left handed circularly polarized incident light (R* and L* plots, respectively). L* spectra show a pronounced selective reflection band in the stretched crosslinked CLC elastomer, whereas no L* peak is seen in the non cross-linked CLC polymer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Peak height of the selective reflection band against uniaxial elongation. On stretching, the peak height of L* polarization in crosslinked CLC elastomers becomes comparable with the R* polarization reflection, showing that the original helical chirality is lost in favor of a non-chiral periodical texture. No significant change is seen in the non-crosslinked CLC polymer reflection intensity. The lines are just a guide for the eye.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The contraction of cholesteric helix λzz against imposed uniaxial strain λxx . The non cross-linked CLC polymer plots on the line of λ -0.5 xx showing the isotropic deformation, whereas the cross-linked CLC polymer plots on the line of λ -0.38 xx showing the anisotropic deformation.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relaxation of the contracted helix under uniaxial strain after the samples of non-crosslinked and weakly crosslinked CLC polymer were instantaneously stretched by 70%. The plot shows the normalized shift in the R* selective reflection peak position; the data is fitted by a double exponential equation. The dashed line suggests the level that would be exhibited in the fully crosslinked CLC network.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Single mode laser emission from the CLC-MS-CLC three layer system, stretched by about 60%. Superposed is the transmittance spectrum of the CLC layer stretched by the same amount between silicone supports. The laser emission intensity is expressed in arbitrary units.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Wavelength of the primary emission line is plotted against sample elongation (*), and compared with the peak wavelength λc of the cholesteric selective reflection gap (△). Horizontal dotted lines show the range of emission spectrum of Rhodamine B (RhB) where the emission intensity is more than 50% of its maximum value (585–650 nm).

Equations (3)

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tan 2 ϕ = 2 λ 1 4 ( r 1 ) sin 2 q ˜ z ( r 1 ) ( λ 2 + λ 3 2 ) cos 2 q ˜ z + ( r + 1 ) ( λ 2 λ 3 2 )
Δ λ ( t ) = λ ( I ) λ ( t ) λ ( I ) λ min ( 0 )
Δ λ ( t ) = A s e k s t + A f e k f t + B

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