Abstract

We demonstrate a novel functionality of semiconductor nanowires as local sources for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Photoexcited semiconductor nanowires decay non-radiatively exciting SPPs when they are on top of a metallic surface. We have investigated the anisotropic excitation of SPPs by nanowires by placing individual InP nanowires inside gold bullseye gratings. The gratings serve to couple SPPs to free space radiation that is detected with a scanning confocal microscope. The circular geometry of the grating allows to conclude that SPPs are preferentially generated in the direction along the nanowire axis.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. O. L. Muskens, J. Treffers, M. Forcales, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Modification of InP nanowire photoluminescence by coupling to surface plasmons on a metal grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 2097-2099 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, J. Treffers, M. Forcales, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Modification of InP nanowire photoluminescence by coupling to surface plasmons on a metal grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 2097-2099 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. T. Borgström, V. Zwiller, E. Müller, and A. Imamoglu, "Optically bright quantum dots in single nanowires," Nano Lett. 5, 1439-1443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Ruda and S. Shik, "Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 72,115308:1-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers," Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 421, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661-699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, "Coupling, resonance transmission, and tunneling of surface plasmon polaritons through metallic gratings of finite length," Phys. Rev. B 53, 10317-10327 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Haraguchi, T. Katsuyama, K. Hiruma, and K. Ogawa, "GaAs p-n junction formed in quantum wire crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 745-747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

R.W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall,"Surface-plasmon coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838-2841 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic interaction of molecules with metal surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, "Emission of light from Ag metal gratings coated with dye monolayer assemblies," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4795-4799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers," Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. Treffers, M. Forcales, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Modification of InP nanowire photoluminescence by coupling to surface plasmons on a metal grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 2097-2099 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 421, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661-699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borgström, M. T.

O. L. Muskens, J. Treffers, M. Forcales, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Modification of InP nanowire photoluminescence by coupling to surface plasmons on a metal grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 2097-2099 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Borgström, V. Zwiller, E. Müller, and A. Imamoglu, "Optically bright quantum dots in single nanowires," Nano Lett. 5, 1439-1443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 421, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers," Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 421, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Escalante, M.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forcales, M.

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic interaction of molecules with metal surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Girlando, A.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, "Emission of light from Ag metal gratings coated with dye monolayer assemblies," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4795-4799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gómez Rivas, J.

O. L. Muskens, J. Treffers, M. Forcales, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Modification of InP nanowire photoluminescence by coupling to surface plasmons on a metal grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 2097-2099 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruhlke, R.W.

R.W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall,"Surface-plasmon coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838-2841 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudiksen, M. S.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. G.

R.W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall,"Surface-plasmon coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838-2841 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haraguchi, K.

K. Haraguchi, T. Katsuyama, K. Hiruma, and K. Ogawa, "GaAs p-n junction formed in quantum wire crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 745-747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haring Bolivar, P.

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiruma, K.

K. Haraguchi, T. Katsuyama, K. Hiruma, and K. Ogawa, "GaAs p-n junction formed in quantum wire crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 745-747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

R.W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall,"Surface-plasmon coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838-2841 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers," Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

M. T. Borgström, V. Zwiller, E. Müller, and A. Imamoglu, "Optically bright quantum dots in single nanowires," Nano Lett. 5, 1439-1443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsuyama, T.

K. Haraguchi, T. Katsuyama, K. Hiruma, and K. Ogawa, "GaAs p-n junction formed in quantum wire crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 745-747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kelkensberg, F.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, "Emission of light from Ag metal gratings coated with dye monolayer assemblies," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4795-4799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kouwenhoven, L. P.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers," Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Tejeira, F.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minot, E. D.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, E.

M. T. Borgström, V. Zwiller, E. Müller, and A. Imamoglu, "Optically bright quantum dots in single nanowires," Nano Lett. 5, 1439-1443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, J. Treffers, M. Forcales, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Modification of InP nanowire photoluminescence by coupling to surface plasmons on a metal grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 2097-2099 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Offerhaus, H. L.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, K.

K. Haraguchi, T. Katsuyama, K. Hiruma, and K. Ogawa, "GaAs p-n junction formed in quantum wire crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 745-747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philpott, M. R.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, "Emission of light from Ag metal gratings coated with dye monolayer assemblies," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4795-4799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I. P.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruda, H. E.

H. E. Ruda and S. Shik, "Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 72,115308:1-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, "Coupling, resonance transmission, and tunneling of surface plasmon polaritons through metallic gratings of finite length," Phys. Rev. B 53, 10317-10327 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Light scattering from random rough dielectric surfaces," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1270-1286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shik, S.

H. E. Ruda and S. Shik, "Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 72,115308:1-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, "Emission of light from Ag metal gratings coated with dye monolayer assemblies," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4795-4799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treffers, J.

van Dam, J. A.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Bergen, B.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kouwen, M.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verheijen, M. A.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic interaction of molecules with metal surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wunnicke, O.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Borgström, V. Zwiller, E. Müller, and A. Imamoglu, "Optically bright quantum dots in single nanowires," Nano Lett. 5, 1439-1443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Haraguchi, T. Katsuyama, K. Hiruma, and K. Ogawa, "GaAs p-n junction formed in quantum wire crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 745-747 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, J. Gómez Rivas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and P. Haring Bolivar, "Analysis of the propagation of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on semiconductor groove gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 023707:1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, "Emission of light from Ag metal gratings coated with dye monolayer assemblies," J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4795-4799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 661-699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (4)

E. D. Minot, F. Kelkensberg, M. van Kouwen, J. A. van Dam, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, M. T. Borgström, O. Wunnicke, M. A. Verheijen, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, "Single quantum dot nanowire LEDs," Nano Lett. 7, 367-371 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Borgström, V. Zwiller, E. Müller, and A. Imamoglu, "Optically bright quantum dots in single nanowires," Nano Lett. 5, 1439-1443 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van de Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, "Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5, 2144-2148 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, "Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources," Nature 449, 885-889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 421, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers," Nature 421, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

F. Lopez-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nature Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic interaction of molecules with metal surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. E. Ruda and S. Shik, "Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 72,115308:1-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil, "Coupling, resonance transmission, and tunneling of surface plasmon polaritons through metallic gratings of finite length," Phys. Rev. B 53, 10317-10327 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R.W. Gruhlke, W. R. Holland, and D. G. Hall,"Surface-plasmon coupling in molecular fluorescence near a corrugated thin metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2838-2841 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Springer, Berlin 1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dark field optical microscope image of an array of 18×16 bullseye gratings. The bright, dusty like, spots on the image correspond to the light scattered by InP nanowires. The inset displays a larger magnification image centered on a bullseye grating that contains an individual InP nanowire.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoluminescence spectrum of light emitted by an InP nanowire measured with a polarization parallel (solid line) and perpendicular (dashed line) to its long axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup used to investigate the excitation of SPPs by a semiconductor nanowire.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Optical microscope image of an InP nanowire inside a bullseye grating. Photoluminescence images measured with a polarization parallel to the long axis of the nanowire (b) and perpendicular to this axis (c). The polarization state is indicated by the dashed lines. The thin dotted circle in (b) indicates the innermost groove of the circular grating and the positions at which the polar plot of the SPP emission of Fig. 5 is obtained.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Polar plot of the normalized SPP emission at the innermost groove of the circular grating. The nanowire, which is represented schematically inside the plot, is oriented with its long axis along the horizontal direction.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Normalized intensity of the photoluminescence of Fig. 4(a) along the dashed line in this figure. (b) and (c) are a close up to the two maxima at the sides of the direct photoluminescence of the nanowire (central maximum in (a)). The red-dashed curves in (b) and (c) correspond to the calculated SPP confocal intensity coupled out by a grating with the same geometrical parameters as the one used for the experiment.

Equations (1)

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k 0 sin θ ± n G = ± k S P P ,

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