Abstract

We demonstrate parametric wavelength conversion via four-wave mixing using ultra-low peak pump powers of a few milliwatts in a micrometer-scale silicon device. The response time of our device is 100 ps allowing for implementation in high-bandwidth optical communications. At these ultra-low power levels and microscale sizes, it should be possible to realize hundreds of these devices operating simultaneously on a single chip.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, "Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, and M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Express 15, 9600-9605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ayotte, H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Multichannel dispersion compensation using a silicon waveguide-based optical phase conjugator," Opt. Lett. 32, 2393-2395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Accurate measurement of scattering and absorption loss in microphotonic devices," Opt. Lett. 32, 2954-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, P. S. Cho, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P. -T. Ho, "Wavelength conversion in GaAs mirco-ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 25, 554-556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, "Design of highly efficient four-wave mixing devices using Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992-994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1966

A. Ashkin, G. Boyd, and J. Dziedzic, "Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 109-124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

Agha, I. H.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. Boyd, and J. Dziedzic, "Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 109-124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ayotte, S.

S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ayotte, H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Multichannel dispersion compensation using a silicon waveguide-based optical phase conjugator," Opt. Lett. 32, 2393-2395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Borselli, M.

Boyd, G.

A. Ashkin, G. Boyd, and J. Dziedzic, "Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 109-124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, "Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, P. S.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Dadap, J. I.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J.

A. Ashkin, G. Boyd, and J. Dziedzic, "Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 109-124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. -i. Takahashi, and S. -i. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. -T.

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S. -i.

Johnson, T. J.

Joneckis, L. G.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, "Design of highly efficient four-wave mixing devices using Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992-994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y. -H.

Lee, B. G.

Liang, T. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, and M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Express 15, 9600-9605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, "Transmission of high-data-rate optical signals through a micrometer-scale silicon ring resonator," Opt. Lett. 31, 2701-2703 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 30, 2891-2893 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-21-2891.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, P. S. Cho, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P. -T. Ho, "Wavelength conversion in GaAs mirco-ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 25, 554-556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Lorattanasane, C.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, "Design of highly efficient four-wave mixing devices using Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992-994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

McNab, S. J.

Okawachi, Y.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Accurate measurement of scattering and absorption loss in microphotonic devices," Opt. Lett. 32, 2954-2956 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Paniccia, M. J.

S. Ayotte, H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Multichannel dispersion compensation using a silicon waveguide-based optical phase conjugator," Opt. Lett. 32, 2393-2395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, S. F.

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, "Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. -i. Takahashi, and S. -i. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sih, V.

Small, B. A.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J. -i.

Takahashi, M.

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. -i. Takahashi, and S. -i. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, "Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. -i. Takahashi, and S. -i. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, R. A.

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Xu, S.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. -i. Takahashi, and S. -i. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, "Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Ashkin, G. Boyd, and J. Dziedzic, "Resonant optical second harmonic generation and mixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 109-124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, "Design of highly efficient four-wave mixing devices using Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992-994 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. -i. Takahashi, and S. -i. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1182-1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. -H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, and M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Express 15, 9600-9605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Four-wave mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q optical microspheres," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of Critical Coupling in a Fiber Taper to a Silica-Microsphere Whispering-Gallery Mode System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. A. Foster and A. L. Gaeta, "Wavelength Dependence of the Ultrafast Third-Order Nonlinearity of Silicon," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuY5. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2007-CTuY5

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, New York, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The microring resonator, shown in this SEM prior to being clad, is used for performing the parametric nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. Here we demonstrate low-power frequency conversion of an input signal, Is (in) , to an output idler, Ii (out) . Inset: Schematic of cross-section of waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured conversion efficiency as a function of wavelength for several ring resonances (red) and transmission spectrum (blue) in a 50-µm radius ring. A 15-dB enhancement of the FWM process due to the resonant cavity is observed. Inset: Sample on-resonance FWM spectrum with pump (P), signal (S), converted idler of interest (C1), and additional converted idler (C2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated (-) and experimental (•) conversion efficiency as a function of input pump power for rings with free carrier lifetime of 500 ps, (a) 10-µm radius and a Q of 23,000 and (b) 50-µm radius and a Q of 19,000.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated dependence of conversion efficiency vs. power for a 5-µm radius ring on (a) GVD assuming a free carrier lifetime of 500 ps and (b) free carrier lifetime assuming GVD of 0 ps/(nm·km)

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η I i ( out ) I s ( in ) = γ P p L eff 2 F p 2 F s F i ,
L eff 2 = L 2 exp ( α L ) 1 exp ( α L + j Δ k L ) α L j Δ k L 2 ,
F p , s , i = σ 1 τ exp ( αL 2 + jk p , s , i L ) 2 ,

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