Abstract

Herein is discussed the performance of spaceborne nulling interferometers searching for extra-solar planets, in terms of their extinction maps projected on-sky. In particular, it is shown that the designs of Spatial Filtering (SF) and Achromatic Phase Shifter (APS) subsystems, both required to achieve planet detection and characterization, can sensibly affect the nulling maps produced by a simple Bracewell interferometer. Analytical relationships involving cross correlation products are provided and numerical simulations are performed, demonstrating marked differences in the aspect of extinction maps and the values of attained fringes contrasts. It is concluded that depending on their basic principles and designs, FS and APS will result in variable capacities for serendipitous discoveries of planets orbiting around their parent star. The mathematical relationships presented in this paper are assumed to be general, i.e. they should apply to other types of multi-apertures nulling interferometers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B.F. Lane, M.W. Muterspaugh, and M. Shao, “Calibrating an interferometric null,” Astrophys. J. 648, 1276–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Hénault, “Design of achromatic phase shifters for spaceborne nulling interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3635–3637 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

O.P. Lay, “Imaging properties of rotating nulling interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5859–5871 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gillon, F. Courbin, P. Magain, and B. Borguet, “On the potential of extrasolar transit planet survey,” Astron. Astrophys. 442, 731–744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

J.R.P. Angel and N.J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier and J.M. Mariotti “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340–5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Légeret al., “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future ? The Darwin project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, “A Jupiter-Mass Companion to a Solar-Type Star,” Nature 378, 355–359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1979 (1)

R.N Bracewell and R.H. MacPhie “Searching for non solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Absil, O.

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Angel, J.R.P.

J.R.P. Angel and N.J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borguet, B.

M. Gillon, F. Courbin, P. Magain, and B. Borguet, “On the potential of extrasolar transit planet survey,” Astron. Astrophys. 442, 731–744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R.N

R.N Bracewell and R.H. MacPhie “Searching for non solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cassaing, F.

C. Ruilier and F. Cassaing, “Coupling of large telescope and single-mode waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 143–149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Clédassou, R.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Coudé Du Foresto, V.

V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

Courbin, F.

M. Gillon, F. Courbin, P. Magain, and B. Borguet, “On the potential of extrasolar transit planet survey,” Astron. Astrophys. 442, 731–744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delpech, M.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

den Hartog, R.

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duchon, P.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Escarrat, L.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Fabry, P.

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Fridlund, M.

M. Fridlund, “Darwin and TPF: technology and prospects,” in Proc. of the SPIE 5491, New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, W.A. Traub ed., 227–235 (2004).

Gay, J.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, J.P. Rivet, and J.L. Schneider, “Review of Concepts and Constraints for Achromatic Phase Shifters,” in Proceedings of GENIE-DARWIN Workshop – Hunting for Planets, H. Lacoste ed., ESA SP-522 (European Space Agency, 2003), 7.1.

Gillon, M.

M. Gillon, F. Courbin, P. Magain, and B. Borguet, “On the potential of extrasolar transit planet survey,” Astron. Astrophys. 442, 731–744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gitton, P.

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, P.

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorius, N.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Guidotti, P.Y.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Hénault, F.

Lacasse, M.G.

V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

Lane, B.F.

B.F. Lane, M.W. Muterspaugh, and M. Shao, “Calibrating an interferometric null,” Astrophys. J. 648, 1276–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lay, O.P.

Le Duigou, J.M.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Léger, A.

A. Légeret al., “Could we search for primitive life on extrasolar planets in the near future ? The Darwin project,” Icarus 123, 249–255 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

MacPhie, R.H.

R.N Bracewell and R.H. MacPhie “Searching for non solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136–147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Magain, P.

M. Gillon, F. Courbin, P. Magain, and B. Borguet, “On the potential of extrasolar transit planet survey,” Astron. Astrophys. 442, 731–744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Mariotti, J.M.

Mayor, M.

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, “A Jupiter-Mass Companion to a Solar-Type Star,” Nature 378, 355–359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

Mennesson, B.P.

V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

Meyssignac, B.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Mourard, D.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Muterspaugh, M.W.

B.F. Lane, M.W. Muterspaugh, and M. Shao, “Calibrating an interferometric null,” Astrophys. J. 648, 1276–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ollivier, M.

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 596–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier and J.M. Mariotti “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340–5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Perrin, G.

V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

Puech, F.

O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Queloz, D.

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, “A Jupiter-Mass Companion to a Solar-Type Star,” Nature 378, 355–359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rabbia, Y.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, J.P. Rivet, and J.L. Schneider, “Review of Concepts and Constraints for Achromatic Phase Shifters,” in Proceedings of GENIE-DARWIN Workshop – Hunting for Planets, H. Lacoste ed., ESA SP-522 (European Space Agency, 2003), 7.1.

Rivet, J.P.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, J.P. Rivet, and J.L. Schneider, “Review of Concepts and Constraints for Achromatic Phase Shifters,” in Proceedings of GENIE-DARWIN Workshop – Hunting for Planets, H. Lacoste ed., ESA SP-522 (European Space Agency, 2003), 7.1.

Roddier, F.

Rouan, D.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Rousset, G.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Ruilier, C.

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 596–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruilier and F. Cassaing, “Coupling of large telescope and single-mode waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 143–149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

Schneider, J.L.

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, J.P. Rivet, and J.L. Schneider, “Review of Concepts and Constraints for Achromatic Phase Shifters,” in Proceedings of GENIE-DARWIN Workshop – Hunting for Planets, H. Lacoste ed., ESA SP-522 (European Space Agency, 2003), 7.1.

Shaklan, S.

Shao, M.

B.F. Lane, M.W. Muterspaugh, and M. Shao, “Calibrating an interferometric null,” Astrophys. J. 648, 1276–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

Traub, W.A.

V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

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O. Absil, R. den Hartog, P. Gondoin, P. Fabry, R. Wilhelm, P. Gitton, and F. Puech, “Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers: Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE,” Astron. Astrophys. 448, 787–800 (2006).
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J.R.P. Angel and N.J. Woolf, “An imaging nulling interferometer to study extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 475, 373–379 (1997).
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V. Coudé Du Foresto, G. Perrin, C. Ruilier, B.P. Mennesson, W.A. Traub, and M.G. Lacasse, “FLUOR fibered instrument at the IOTA interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 3350, Astronomical Interferometry, R.D. Reasenberg ed., 856–863 (1998).

Y. Rabbia, J. Gay, J.P. Rivet, and J.L. Schneider, “Review of Concepts and Constraints for Achromatic Phase Shifters,” in Proceedings of GENIE-DARWIN Workshop – Hunting for Planets, H. Lacoste ed., ESA SP-522 (European Space Agency, 2003), 7.1.

J.M. Le Duigou, M. Ollivier, A. Léger, F. Cassaing, B. Sorrente, B. Fleury, G. Rousset, O. Absil, D. Mourard, Y. Rabbia, L. Escarrat, F. Malbet, D. Rouan, R. Clédassou, M. Delpech, P. Duchon, B. Meyssignac, P.Y. Guidotti, and N. Gorius, “Pegase: a space-based nulling interferometer,” in Proc. of the SPIE 6265, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation I: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter, J.C. Mather, H.A. MacEwen, and M.W.M. de Graauw eds., 62651M (2006).

M. Fridlund, “Darwin and TPF: technology and prospects,” in Proc. of the SPIE 5491, New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, W.A. Traub ed., 227–235 (2004).

TPF-I Science Working Group Report, JPL Publication 07-1, P.R. Lawson, O.P. Lay, K.J. Johnston, and C.A. Beichman eds., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Computing sky maps of a Bracewell interferometer

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Extinction map generated by pinhole filtering with no FoV reversal (left, 3D view; right, gray scale levels)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Extinction map generated by pinhole filtering with FoV-reversal APS (left, 3D view; right, gray scale levels)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Extinction map generated by SMF filtering (left, 3D view; right, gray scale levels)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Slices along U-axis of extinction maps for different SF and APS devices (dashed line: pinhole filtering with no FoV reversal; dotted line: pinhole filtering with FoV reversal; solid line: SMF filtering)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Variation of extinction ratio between dark and white fringes

Equations (14)

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E ( u , v ) = A 0 2 sin 2 ( ϕ ) = A 0 2 sin 2 ( π Bu λ )
A ( u , v , x , y ) = A 0 [ exp ( i ϕ ) exp ( i ϕ ) ] B ̂ D ( x Fu , y Fv ) 2
B ̂ D ( x , y ) = 2 J 1 ( π D ρ λ F ) ( π D ρ λ F )
E ( u , v ) = A 0 2 sin 2 ( ϕ ) x , y B ̂ D ( x Fu , y Fv ) 2 B P ( x , y ) dx dy A 0 2 x , y B P ( x , y ) dx dy
E ( u , v ) = sin 2 ( π Bu λ ) [ B ̂ D 2 B P ] ( Fu , Fv ) S P
A ( u , v , x , y ) = A 0 [ exp ( i ϕ ) B ̂ D ( x - Fu , y - Fv ) exp ( i ϕ ) B ̂ D ( x + Fu , y + Fv ) ] 2
E ( u , v ) = { [ B ̂ D 2 B P ] ( Fu , Fv ) + [ B ̂ D 2 B P ] ( Fu , Fv ) 2 cos ( 2 ϕ ) x , y B ̂ D ( x Fu , y Fv ) B ̂ D ( x + Fu , y + Fv ) B P ( x , y ) dx dy } 4 S p
A 1 ( u , v , x , y ) = A 0 2 exp [ i ϕ ] x , y B ̂ D ( x Fu , y Fv ) exp ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 dx dy 2 A 0 2 C
C = [ x , y B ̂ D ( x Fu , y Fv ) 2 dx dy ] 1 2 [ x , y exp [ 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 ] dx dy ] 1 2 = 2 1 2 λ FR F D
A 1 ( u , v , x , y ) = exp ( i ϕ ) { B ̂ D exp ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 } ( Fu , Fv ) 2 C
E ( u , v ) = sin 2 ( π Bu λ ) B ̂ D exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 ] 2 ( Fu , Fv ) C 2
A 1 ( u , v , x , y ) = exp [ i ϕ ] x , y T ̂ ( x Fu , y Fv ) exp ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 dx dy 2 C T
A 2 ( u , v , x , y ) = exp [ i ϕ ] x , y T ̂ ( x + Fu , y + Fv ) exp ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 dx dy 2 C T
E ( u , v ) = { T ̂ exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 ] 2 ( Fu , Fv ) + T ̂ exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 ] 2 ( Fu , Fv ) 2 cos ( 2 ϕ ) × T ̂ exp ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 ( Fu , fv ) × T ̂ exp ( x 2 + y 2 ) R F 2 ( Fu , Fv ) } 4 C T 2

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