Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated that because of intensity clamping, when the laser peak power is higher than the critical power for self-focusing, further increase of the laser power cannot result in corresponding increase of the laser ablation rate of a metallic sample placed in gases. The ablation rate will finally approach a stabilized value. Also, the experimental technique implemented in our work could be potentially used to measure the self-focusing critical power and the nonlinear refractive index.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2657–2659 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. S.L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Applied Physics B 71, 877–879 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S.L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air”, Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  15. J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence”,Opt. Express 13, 7541–7547 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  19. E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2 and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15260–15267 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[Crossref]

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15260–15267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Applied Physics B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S.L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air”, Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999)
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akozbek, N.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Akturk, S.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Becker, A

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

Boudreau, D.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C.M.

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Applied Physics B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chin, S.L.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[Crossref]

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S.L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air”, Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999)
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15260–15267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

D’Amico, C.

Daigle, J.-F.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eckle, P.

Franco, M.

Franco, M. A.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gravel, J.-F.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Guandalini, A.

Hagan, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hauri, C.

Hauri, C.P.

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, A.

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Helbing, F. W.

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, S.A.

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kamali, Y.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kandidov, V.P.

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kasparian, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Applied Physics B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Kornelis, W.

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence”,Opt. Express 13, 7541–7547 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kosareva, O.G.

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

S.L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13, 5750–5755 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, Q.

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, P.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases,” Opt. Express 15, 15260–15267 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2657–2659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2 and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Oral, E.

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S.L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air”, Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999)
[Crossref]

Prade, B. S.

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roy, G.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Salmon, E.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Applied Physics B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, H.

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Simard, P.T.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S.L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air”, Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999)
[Crossref]

Tang, X. P.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

S.L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.L.

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

C.P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[Crossref]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C.M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and refocusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

S.L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 477–483 (2007)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977–3977 (2004).
[Crossref]

Applied Physics B (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Applied Physics B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S.L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air”, Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999)
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochimica Acta Part B (1)

W. Liu, H.L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P.T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S.L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. (SDG: synchronization delay generator.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The normalized fluorescence signal intensity of the filament along the propagation axis taken by CCD camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In air, number of laser pulses required to penetrate the aluminum foil as a function of pulse energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In argon gas, number of laser pulses required to penetrate the aluminum foil as a function of pulse energy.

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