Abstract

The emerging transparent optical networks, employing spectrally-efficient modulation formats require new methods for supervision of signal quality in the optical domain. In this paper we demonstrate the optical performance monitoring (OPM) of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and chromatic dispersion (CD) in return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signals using asynchronous delay-tap sampling and pattern recognition algorithms. We experimentally show noise measurement of OSNR from 8.7 dB to 32 dB with low optical input power requirement. Moreover, residual CD can be evaluated in the range from -600 to +600 ps/nm. The results indicate that careful adjustment of delay is necessary in order to ensure accurate measurement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Saleh and J. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gnauck and P. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Bendelli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi, and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques," in Proc. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2000, 11.4.1.
  8. I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Huang, W. Wen, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, "Signal-quality consideration for dynamic connection provisioning in all-optical wavelength-routed networks," in Proc. Opt. Netw. and Commun. conference (OptiComm, 2003), pp. 163-173.
  10. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. K. Lize, J. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Seguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2007, OThN2.
  12. S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2003, WP1.
  14. H. Takara, T. Ohara, and B. Kozicki, "Optical signal quality monitoring based on asynchronous amplitude histogram for DPSK systems," in Proc. Symp. Photon. Fiber Measurements (SOFM, 2006), pp.129-132.
  15. Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2006, OWN4.
  17. S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2007, OMM5.
  18. S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2006, OThP5.
  19. K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in Proc. Intern. Conf. Opt. Internet - Australian Conf. Optical Fibre Technol. (COIN-ACOFT), 2007, MoA1-2.
  20. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "Asynchronous optical performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals using delay-tap sampling," in Proc. 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, P060.
  21. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 1257-1269 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. S. Nixon and A. S. Aguado, Feature Extraction and Image Processing, (Newnes, 2002).
  24. T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 544-554 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 1257-1269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Saleh and J. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 544-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bach, R.

Blumenthal, D.

Charlet, G.

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Einstein, D.

Essiambre, R.-J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A.

Illingworth, J.

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jun, S.

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D.

Kim, H.

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Kittler, J.

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kozicki, B.

Landolsi, T.

Lee, J.

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

Mas, C.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mizuochi, T.

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 544-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostar, L.

Park, P.

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Preiss, M.

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A.

Simmons, J.

Tomkos, I.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tzanakaki, A.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varvarigos, E.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vogiatzis, D.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zacharopoulos, I.

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. (1)

J. Illingworth and J. Kittler, "A survey of the Hough transform," Comput. Vision Graph. Image Process. 44, 87-116 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

I. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, "Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Charlet, "Progress in optical modulation formats for high-bit rate WDM transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 469-483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 544-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jun, H. Kim, P. Park, J. Lee, and Y. Chung, "Pilot-tone-based WDM monitoring technique for DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2171-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, "In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 472-474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

G. Bendelli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi, and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques," in Proc. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2000, 11.4.1.

Y. Huang, W. Wen, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, "Signal-quality consideration for dynamic connection provisioning in all-optical wavelength-routed networks," in Proc. Opt. Netw. and Commun. conference (OptiComm, 2003), pp. 163-173.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farrell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2006, OWN4.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, and A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2007, OMM5.

S. D. Dods and T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2006, OThP5.

K. Clarke, T. B. Anderson, and S. D. Dods, "Monitoring of multiple modulation formats using asynchronous delay-tap sampling," in Proc. Intern. Conf. Opt. Internet - Australian Conf. Optical Fibre Technol. (COIN-ACOFT), 2007, MoA1-2.

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "Asynchronous optical performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals using delay-tap sampling," in Proc. 33rd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, P060.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Song, R. Motaghian, S. Havstad, and A. E. Willner, "Monitoring chromatic dispersion and PMD impairments in optical differential phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) systems," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2003, WP1.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, and B. Kozicki, "Optical signal quality monitoring based on asynchronous amplitude histogram for DPSK systems," in Proc. Symp. Photon. Fiber Measurements (SOFM, 2006), pp.129-132.

Y. K. Lize, J. Yang, L. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Seguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), 2007, OThN2.

M. S. Nixon and A. S. Aguado, Feature Extraction and Image Processing, (Newnes, 2002).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Delay-tap sampling principle: a) generic structure of the delay-tap sampling monitoring device; OBPF – optical band-pass filter, PD – photodiode; b) acquisition of sample pairs with a delay Δt and at a repetition rate of Tsamp.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generation of delay-tap plot: a) sample values assigned as X (E(X)) and Y (E(Y)) coordinates; b) overlay of sample pairs in Cartesian system for Δt=1/10 bit period.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot analysis using Hough transform: a) the delay-tap plot and b) accumulator array.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for generation of RZ-DPSK signal, introduction of transmission impairments, and signal analysis using delay-tap sampling; CW – continuous wave light source, PC – polarization controller, DD – dual-drive, MZM – Mach-Zehnder modulator, EDFA – erbium-doped fiber amplifier, VOA – variable optical attenuator, OSA – optical spectrum analyzer, OBPF – optical band-pass filter, TDC – tunable dispersion compensator, PM – power monitor, PD – photodiode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Monitoring of OSNR: a) waveform and the corresponding delay-tap plots at OSNR of 30 dB and 15 dB; b) histogram of frequency of sample pair occurrence along the diagonal D for OSNR of 30, 20, and 15 dB; μ0 and μ1 – mean distances of waveform valley and peak distributions along the diagonal, σ0 and σ1 – respective standard deviations of the distributions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Monitoring of OSNR: a) noise parameter as a function of OSNR (0.1 nm); b) dependence of noise measurement on optical input power.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Monitoring of OSNR: a) standard deviation of noise parameter as a function of number of sample pairs; b) noise parameter as a function of delay Δt for OSNR of 30, 20, and 15 dB.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Monitoring of CD: a) waveforms and respective delay-tap plots for residual CD of 0 and 500 ps/nm. Dispersion parameter Fdis,rz evaluated as the distance between lines parallel to the diagonal D and containing delay-tap plot points; b) accumulator array after Hough transform of delay-tap plot (500 ps/nm). The arrows indicate measurement points for Fdis,rz parameter.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Monitoring of CD – dispersion parameter as a function of residual CD.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Monitoring of CD: a) standard deviation of dispersion parameter as a function of number of sample pairs; b) dispersion parameter as a function of delay Δt for residual CD of 0, 300, and 600 ps/nm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Mutual influence of impairments: a) influence of CD on noise monitoring; b) influence of OSNR on CD monitoring.

Equations (1)

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F snr , rz = 20 * log ( μ 1 μ 0 σ 1 + σ 0 ) .

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