Abstract

We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and solar conversion efficiency in the ultraviolet. Hybridizing (CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots of 2.4 nm in diameter on multi-crystalline Si solar cells for the first time, we show that the solar conversion efficiency is enhanced 2 folds under white light illumination similar to the solar spectrum. Such nanocrystal scintillators provide the ability to extend the photovoltaic activity towards UV.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (8)

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-F. Li, Y.-R. Chen, J. Miao, P. Zhou, Y.-X. Zheng, and L.-Y. Chen, "High solar absorption of a multilayered thin film structure," Opt. Express 15, 1907-1912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express 15, 14289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

J-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1557-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Qi, M. B. Fischbein, M. Drndic, and S. Selmic, "Efficient polymer-nanocrystal quantum-dot photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Fischbein and M. Drndic, "CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sun, H. J. Snaith, A. S. Dhoot, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, "Vertically segregated hybrid blends for photovoltaic devices with improved efficiency," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, T. Tanaka, K. Sivula, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. M. J. Fréchet, "Employing end-functional polythiophene to control the morphology of nanocrystal-polymer composites in hybrid solar cells," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6550-6551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chaudhary, M. Ozkan, and W. C. W. Chan, "Trilayer hybrid polymer-quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2925-2927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices," Nature 420, 800-803 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 295, 2425-2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Nozik, "Quantum dot solar cells," Physica E 14, 115-120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207-211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

1999 (1)

A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Gao, A. Eychmuller, and H. Weller, "Synthesis and characterization of a size series of extremely small thiol-stabilized CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3065-3069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. A Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescent ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. M. Caldwell, "Plant life and ultraviolet radiation: some perspective in the history of the earth's UV climate," BioScience 29, 520-52 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akin, O.

Alivisatos, A. P.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, T. Tanaka, K. Sivula, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. M. J. Fréchet, "Employing end-functional polythiophene to control the morphology of nanocrystal-polymer composites in hybrid solar cells," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6550-6551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 295, 2425-2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atay, T.

J-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1557-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices," Nature 420, 800-803 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

Bulovic, V.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices," Nature 420, 800-803 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabi, F.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M. M.

M. M. Caldwell, "Plant life and ultraviolet radiation: some perspective in the history of the earth's UV climate," BioScience 29, 520-52 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. C. W.

S. Chaudhary, M. Ozkan, and W. C. W. Chan, "Trilayer hybrid polymer-quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2925-2927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhary, S.

S. Chaudhary, M. Ozkan, and W. C. W. Chan, "Trilayer hybrid polymer-quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2925-2927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-Y.

Chen, Y.-R.

Cingolani, R.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coe, S.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices," Nature 420, 800-803 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabbousi, B. O.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Vittorio, M.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Della Sala, F.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Della Torre, A.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express 15, 14289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dhoot, A. S.

B. Sun, H. J. Snaith, A. S. Dhoot, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, "Vertically segregated hybrid blends for photovoltaic devices with improved efficiency," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dittmer, J. J.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 295, 2425-2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drndic, M.

M. B. Fischbein and M. Drndic, "CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Qi, M. B. Fischbein, M. Drndic, and S. Selmic, "Efficient polymer-nanocrystal quantum-dot photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eychmu, A.

A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Gao, A. Eychmuller, and H. Weller, "Synthesis and characterization of a size series of extremely small thiol-stabilized CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3065-3069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischbein, M. B.

D. Qi, M. B. Fischbein, M. Drndic, and S. Selmic, "Efficient polymer-nanocrystal quantum-dot photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Fischbein and M. Drndic, "CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fréchet, J. M. J.

J. Liu, T. Tanaka, K. Sivula, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. M. J. Fréchet, "Employing end-functional polythiophene to control the morphology of nanocrystal-polymer composites in hybrid solar cells," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6550-6551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromer, N. A.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, M.

A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Gao, A. Eychmuller, and H. Weller, "Synthesis and characterization of a size series of extremely small thiol-stabilized CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3065-3069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geier, M. L.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenham, N. C.

B. Sun, H. J. Snaith, A. S. Dhoot, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, "Vertically segregated hybrid blends for photovoltaic devices with improved efficiency," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gur, I.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. A Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescent ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207-211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heine, J. R.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. A

M. A Hines and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescent ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holder, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houng, Y.-M.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huyal, I. O.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, W. U.

W. U. Huynh, J. J. Dittmer, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells," Science 295, 2425-2427 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, K. F.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kornowski, A.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207-211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Gao, A. Eychmuller, and H. Weller, "Synthesis and characterization of a size series of extremely small thiol-stabilized CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3065-3069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-F.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, T. Tanaka, K. Sivula, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. M. J. Fréchet, "Employing end-functional polythiophene to control the morphology of nanocrystal-polymer composites in hybrid solar cells," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6550-6551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manna, L.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martiradonna, L.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

Mikulec, F. V.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutlugun, E.

Nizamoglu, S.

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express 15, 14289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

A. J. Nozik, "Quantum dot solar cells," Physica E 14, 115-120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

J-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1557-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ober, R.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, M.

S. Chaudhary, M. Ozkan, and W. C. W. Chan, "Trilayer hybrid polymer-quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2925-2927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pauchard, A.

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

Pompa, P. P.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, R. S.

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

Qi, D.

D. Qi, M. B. Fischbein, M. Drndic, and S. Selmic, "Efficient polymer-nanocrystal quantum-dot photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Randzelovic, Z.

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

Rinaldi, R.

P. P. Pompa, L. Martiradonna, A. Della Torre, F. Della Sala, L. Manna, M. De Vittorio, F. Calabi, R. Cingolani, and R. Rinaldi, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence of colloidal nanocrystals with nanoscale control," Nature Nanotechnology 1, 126-130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

B. O. Dabbousi, J. Rodriguez-Viejo, F. V. Mikulec, J. R. Heine, H. Mattoussi, R. Ober, K. F. Jensen, and M. G. Bawendi, "(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9463-9475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A. L.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207-211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Gao, A. Eychmuller, and H. Weller, "Synthesis and characterization of a size series of extremely small thiol-stabilized CdSe nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3065-3069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Selmic, S.

D. Qi, M. B. Fischbein, M. Drndic, and S. Selmic, "Efficient polymer-nanocrystal quantum-dot photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

J-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1557-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivula, K.

J. Liu, T. Tanaka, K. Sivula, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. M. J. Fréchet, "Employing end-functional polythiophene to control the morphology of nanocrystal-polymer composites in hybrid solar cells," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6550-6551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snaith, H. J.

B. Sun, H. J. Snaith, A. S. Dhoot, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, "Vertically segregated hybrid blends for photovoltaic devices with improved efficiency," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soganci, I. M.

Song, J-H.

J-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1557-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

B. Sun, H. J. Snaith, A. S. Dhoot, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, "Vertically segregated hybrid blends for photovoltaic devices with improved efficiency," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talapin, D. V.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207-211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

J. Liu, T. Tanaka, K. Sivula, A. P. Alivisatos, and J. M. J. Fréchet, "Employing end-functional polythiophene to control the morphology of nanocrystal-polymer composites in hybrid solar cells," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6550-6551 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, N.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, H.

J-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1557-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weller, H.

D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Kornowski, M. Haase, and H. Weller, "Highly luminescent monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine mixture," Nano Lett. 1, 207-211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Westenhoff, S.

B. Sun, H. J. Snaith, A. S. Dhoot, S. Westenhoff, and N. C. Greenham, "Vertically segregated hybrid blends for photovoltaic devices with improved efficiency," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woo, W.-K.

S. Coe, W.-K. Woo, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, "Electroluminescence from single monolayers of nanocrystals in molecular organic devices," Nature 420, 800-803 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-C.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.-F.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.-X.

Zhou, P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Chaudhary, M. Ozkan, and W. C. W. Chan, "Trilayer hybrid polymer-quantum dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2925-2927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Qi, M. B. Fischbein, M. Drndic, and S. Selmic, "Efficient polymer-nanocrystal quantum-dot photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Fischbein and M. Drndic, "CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot memory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 193106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, J.-F. Zheng, N. Li, T.-C. Wu, H.-T. Chen, and Y.-M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

BioScience (1)

M. M. Caldwell, "Plant life and ultraviolet radiation: some perspective in the history of the earth's UV climate," BioScience 29, 520-52 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEDM Tech. Dig. (1)

A. Pauchard, A. Rochas, Z. Randzelovic, P. A. Besse, and R. S. Popovic, "Ultraviolet avalanche photodiode in CMOS technology," IEDM Tech. Dig. 709-712 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J.-F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photoluminescence and absorption spectra of our green nanocrystals in thin film.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The enhancement factor of the spectral responsivity of the Si solar cell hybridized with nanocrystals with respect to the bare Si solar cell. Also in the inset is shown the spectral responsivity of the silicon solar cell in the UV with and without the nanocrystal scintillator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) IV characteristics of the solar cell parameterized with respect to the amount of hybridized nanocrystals under Xe white light illumination and (b) IV characteristics of the solar cell zoomed in the 4th quadrant parameterized with respect to the amount of hybridized nanocrystals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of (a) short circuit current, (b) open circuit voltage, (c) fill factor, (d) relative solar conversion efficiency, and (e) enhancement factor as a function of the increasing amount of nanocrystals, (a)–(e) in order from the top to the bottom of the figure.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Solar cell parameters change as a function of the nanocrystal amount hybridized on the solar cell.

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