Abstract

The excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) by focusing a laser beam on single subwavelength holes opened in a thin gold film is studied both experimentally and theoretically. By means of leakage radiation microscopy, quantitative measurements of the light-SPP coupling efficiency are performed for holes with different sizes and shapes. The system is studied theoretically by using a modal expansion method to calculate the fraction of the incident energy which is scattered by the hole into a surface plasmon. We demonstrate that a single subwavelength hole can be used to generate SPP with an efficiency up to 28%.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. F. de León-Pérez, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, to be published.
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  25. C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Wannemacher, "Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films," Opt. Commun. 195, 107-118 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. Popov, N. Bonod, M. Nevière, H. Rigneault, P.-F. Lenne and P. Chaumet, "Surface plasmon excitation on a single subwavelength hole in a metallic sheet," Appl. Opt. 44, 2332-2337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, "Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal," Opt. Express 13, 1933-1938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, F.J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Wannemacher, "Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films," Opt. Commun. 195, 107-118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-Plasmon Resonance Effect in Grating Diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530-1533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

Arakawa, E. T.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-Plasmon Resonance Effect in Grating Diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530-1533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A.-L.

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

Chaumet, P.

Cowan, J. J.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-Plasmon Resonance Effect in Grating Diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530-1533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

de la Chapelle, M. L.

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duch, A. C.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.W.

E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F.J.

F. López-Tejeira, F.J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, "Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal," Opt. Express 13, 1933-1938 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimault, A-S.

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, R. N.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-Plasmon Resonance Effect in Grating Diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530-1533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

Kumar, L. K. S.

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenne, P.-F.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

López-Tejeira, F.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, F.J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macías, D.

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. López-Tejeira, F.J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

Radko, I. P.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

Rigneault, H.

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-Plasmon Resonance Effect in Grating Diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530-1533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sonnichsen, C.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steininger, G.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vial, A.

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wannemacher, R.

R. Wannemacher, "Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films," Opt. Commun. 195, 107-118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner and J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T.W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via microgratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Sonnichsen, A. C. Duch, G. Steininger, M. Koch, G. von Plessen and J. Feldmann, "Launching surface plasmons into nanoholes in metal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 140-142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber and A. Dereux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324-328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

R. Wannemacher, "Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films," Opt. Commun. 195, 107-118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. U. González, J.-C. Weeber, A.-L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45 surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L Martín-Moreno, E. Moreno, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole in a real metal," Phys. Rev. B 74, 153411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, F.J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Scattering of surface plasmons by one-dimensional periodic nanoindented surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Vial, A-S. Grimault, D. Macías, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, " Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin and J. C. Rodier, "Theory of Surface Plasmon Generation at Nanoslit Apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Resonant transmission of light through finite chains of subwavelength holes in a metallic film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 227401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-Plasmon Resonance Effect in Grating Diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530-1533 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135-2136 (1963).

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, (Springer, Berlin, 1988) Vol 111.

J. Magnes, D. Odera, J. Hartke, M. Fountain, L. Florence and V. Davis, "Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Gaussian Beam Visualization Techniques," http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0605102.

F. de León-Pérez, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, to be published.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online) Scheme of the leakage radiation microscope. SPPs are excited by laser light focused by the microscope objective O 1 (50×, numerical aperture=0.7) onto the sample’s features (inset). The leakage radiation emitted through the glass substrate is collected by the immersionmicroscope objective O 2 (63×, numerical aperture=1.25). The Fourier plane of this objective (F 1) is imaged, through a beam splitter, both on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera and on the detector of a powermeter. A beam-blocker is placed in the Fourier plane F 2 to stop the directly transmitted laser beam. The lens L 4 can be removed to image the sample plane on the CCD camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of a circular hole with a diameter of 400nm opened in a 43 nm-thick-gold film. The white double arrow shows the direction of the polarization of the exciting laser beam. (b) Image of the Fourier plane recorded by the CCD camera for the hole shown in (a). The beam-blocker is used to suppress the transmitted laser beam. (c) Cross-cut recorded along the white dashed line in (b) showing the value separating the plasmon signal from the background (represented by a dashed line in (c)). (d) and (e) Same images as (b) obtained by numerically separating the intensity data above and below the value obtained in (c). The image (d) shows the plasmon signal and the image (e) shows the background signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized coupling efficiency measured as a function of the circle diameter (a) and the square side length (b) of the hole. Both curves have been normalized by taking into account the fraction of power incident on the hole area. The error bars correspond to the spreading of the values during different measurement runs. The lines are mere guides to the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Radiative and ohmic losses of a SPP propagating in the air-gold interface of a 44 nm thick gold film calculated as a function of the incident wavelength. This calculation is based on the equations 2.22 and 2.23 of the reference [14]. The thickness of 44 nm has been chosen in order to have an equality between radiative and ohmic losses at a wavelength of 800nm. (b) Normalized coupling efficiency measured as a function of the incident wavelength for a circular hole with a diameter of 350 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(color online) Normalized-to-area coupling efficiency computed as a function of the circle diameter (a) and the square side length (b) at an incident wavelength of 800nm. The solid red curves represent calculations neglecting the absorption of the metal while for the black dashed lines losses are taken into account. The virtual cylinder used for this computation is schematically represented in the inset as well as the different energy density fluxes J.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(color online) Normalized-to-area coupling efficiency of light to radiative waves (a) and to SPP (b) for a circular hole with a diameter of 350 nm, as a function of the incident wavelength. The solid curves represent calculations neglecting the absorption of the metal while for the dashed lines losses are taken into account.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = P SPP P in = 2 P LR P in ,
E = P SPP P in = P LR + P Ω P in = P LR ( 1 + P Ω P LR ) P in

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