Abstract

We present a novel apodisation scheme for photo-induced waveguide gratings. The apodisation is implemented with double exposures that have reversely varying duty cycles. We have successfully applied the proposed scheme to remove the sidelobes of long period gratings (LPGs). We also observed for the first time super strong sidelobes in LPGs when creating them with only a single varying-duty-cycle exposure. The strong sidelobes can be well explained with a Mach-Zehnder interference model.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. K.O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263, (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, and R. I. Laming, “Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber-exposurening beam technique,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2051, (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes: “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. B. Jensen, N. Plougmann, H. -J. Deyerl, P. Varming, J. Hübner, and M. Kristensen, “Polarization control method for ultraviolet writing of advanced Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1004, (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. -P. Chuang, Y. Lai, and L. -G. Sheu, “Complex fiber grating structures fabricated by sequential writing with polarization control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 340, (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  11. W. Streifer, D.R. Scifres, and R.D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 11, 867, (1975).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D.S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of spectrally clean, long-period grating filters,” In Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, San Diego, USA, Volume: 4, p.p. 174–176.
  13. V. Mizrahi and J.E. Sipe, “Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513, (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. X.J. Gu, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23, 509, (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long Period fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255, (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. X. Shu, B.A.L Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sampled Fiber Bragg Grating for Simultaneous Refractive Index and Temperature Measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774, (2001).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

K.O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263, (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes: “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226, (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, and R. I. Laming, “Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber-exposurening beam technique,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2051, (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

V. Mizrahi and J.E. Sipe, “Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513, (1993).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

W. Streifer, D.R. Scifres, and R.D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 11, 867, (1975).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

Armes, D. J.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes: “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226, (1996).
[Crossref]

Barcelos, S.

Bennion, I.

Bhatia, V.

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

Bona, G.L.

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

Burnham, R.D.

W. Streifer, D.R. Scifres, and R.D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 11, 867, (1975).
[Crossref]

Chuang, K. -P.

Cole, M. J.

David, C.

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

Deyerl, H. -J.

Emi, D.

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

Erickson, L.E.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D.S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of spectrally clean, long-period grating filters,” In Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, San Diego, USA, Volume: 4, p.p. 174–176.

Germann, R.

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D.S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of spectrally clean, long-period grating filters,” In Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, San Diego, USA, Volume: 4, p.p. 174–176.

Gu, X.J.

Gwandu, B.A.L

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

Hill, K.O.

K.O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263, (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

Hübner, J.

Jensen, J. B.

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D.C.

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

Judkins, J.B.

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes: “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226, (1996).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, M.

Lai, Y.

Laming, R. I.

Lemaire, P.J.

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Loh, W. H.

Malo, B.

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

Meltz, G.

K.O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263, (1997).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi and J.E. Sipe, “Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513, (1993).
[Crossref]

Plougmann, N.

Rooks, M.J.

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

Scifres, D.R.

W. Streifer, D.R. Scifres, and R.D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 11, 867, (1975).
[Crossref]

Sheu, L. -G.

Shu, X.

Sipe, J.E.

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi and J.E. Sipe, “Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513, (1993).
[Crossref]

Skorucak, A.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D.S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of spectrally clean, long-period grating filters,” In Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, San Diego, USA, Volume: 4, p.p. 174–176.

Starodubov, D.S.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D.S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of spectrally clean, long-period grating filters,” In Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, San Diego, USA, Volume: 4, p.p. 174–176.

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D.R. Scifres, and R.D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 11, 867, (1975).
[Crossref]

Swanton, A.

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes: “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226, (1996).
[Crossref]

The’riault, S.

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

Varming, P.

Vengsarkar, A.M.

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

Wiesmann, D.

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

Zhang, L.

Electron. Lett. (4)

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, S. The’riault, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and L.E. Erickson, “Apodization of the spectral response of fiber Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,” Electron. Lett. 31, 222, (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K.O. Hill, D.C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, and M.J. Rooks, “Moire phase masks for automatic pure apodisation of fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2260, (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, S. The’riault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, and K. O. Hill, “Apodised in-fiber Bragg grating reflectors photoimprinted using a phase mask,” Electron. Lett. 31, 224, (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, A. Swanton, and D. J. Armes: “Simple technique for apodising chirped and unchirped fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1226, (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. (1)

W. Streifer, D.R. Scifres, and R.D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.. 11, 867, (1975).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639, (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long Period fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255, (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi and J.E. Sipe, “Optical properties of photosensitive fiber phase gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1513, (1993).
[Crossref]

K.O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263, (1997).
[Crossref]

A.M. Vengsarkar, P.J. Lemaire, J.B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J.E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58, (1996)..
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D.S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Fabrication of spectrally clean, long-period grating filters,” In Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999, San Diego, USA, Volume: 4, p.p. 174–176.

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Figures (3)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Schematic of the proposed apodisation method with double exposure and varying duty cycle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the set up for LPG fabrication. (b) Transmission spectrum of a LPG without apodisation. (c) Transmission spectrum of an apodised LPG after the first exposure. (c) Transmission spectrum of the apodised LPG after two exposures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) Two examples of the varying-duty-cycle LPG with only a single exposure. (c) Schematic of Mach-Zehnder interference formed in such a LPG.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 1 = k 0 sin [ π × δ ( x ) ]
Δ n 1 ¯ = Δ n 0 ¯ δ ( x )
k 2 = k 0 sin [ π × ( 1 δ ( x ) ) ]
Δ n 1 ¯ = Δ n 0 ¯ ( 1 δ ( x ) )
k 1 + k 2 = 2 k 0 sin [ π × δ ( x ) ]
Δ n 1 ¯ + Δ n 2 ¯ = Δ n 0 ¯

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