Abstract

We describe an experiment in which a train of femtosecond pulses is coupled into a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by means of an offset pumping technique that can selectively excite either the mode LP01 or LP11 or LP21. The PCF presents a wide range of wavelengths in which the fundamental mode experiences normal dispersion, whereas LP11 and LP21 propagate in the anomalous dispersion regime, generating a supercontinuum based on the soliton fission mechanism. We find that the existence of a cut-off wavelength for the higher-order modes makes the spectral broadening asymmetrical. This latter effect is particularly dramatic in the case of the LP21 mode, in which, by using a pump wavelength slightly below cut-off, the spectral broadening occurs only on the blue side of the pump wavelength. Our experimental results are successfully compared to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765-771 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 924-926 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, P. Nérin, and C. Froehly, "White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system," Opt. Express 12, 4366-4371 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers,’’ Opt. Express 12, 124-135 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, and M. Kaivola, "Enhanced bandwidth of supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 12, 3471-3480 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, and J. C. Knight, "Four-wave mixing of solitons with radiation and quasi-nondispersive wave packets at the short-wavelength edge of a supercontinuum," Opt. Express 14, 9854-9863 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 2567-2576 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. O. Konorov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, P. Zhou, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Mode-controlled colors from microstructure fibers," Opt. Express 12, 730-735 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. H. Lee, J. van Hove, C. Xu, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, "Generation of femtosecond pulses at 1350 nm by Cerenkov radiation in higher-order-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 32, 1053-1055 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, "Blue light and infrared continuum generation by soliton fission in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 307-311 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Express 16, 1300-1320 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (5)

2003 (3)

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, "Blue light and infrared continuum generation by soliton fission in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 307-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 2567-2576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, "Blue light and infrared continuum generation by soliton fission in a microstructured fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77, 307-311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

S. O. Konorov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, P. Zhou, A. P. Tarasevitch, and D. von der Linde, "Mode-controlled colors from microstructure fibers," Opt. Express 12, 730-735 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Express 16, 1300-1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, P. Nérin, and C. Froehly, "White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system," Opt. Express 12, 4366-4371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers,’’ Opt. Express 12, 124-135 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, and M. Kaivola, "Enhanced bandwidth of supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 12, 3471-3480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, and J. C. Knight, "Four-wave mixing of solitons with radiation and quasi-nondispersive wave packets at the short-wavelength edge of a supercontinuum," Opt. Express 14, 9854-9863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 2567-2576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Numerically calculated dispersion curves for the propagation modes of the PCF. Insets (bottom to top): fundamental, second and third order mode intensity distribution obtained by means of a FEM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental output spectra for the modes LP01 and LP11 at 790-nm input wavelength and 200-mW average power. Note the effect of the cut-off wavelength on the LP11 spectrum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental output spectra for the modes LP11 (left) and LP21 (right) at the input wavelength of 790 and 780 nm respectively, for increasing output power. Insets: observed output spatial patterns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental and simulated output spectrum for the excitation of the mode LP21 at the input wavelength of 780 nm and average power of 5 mW. The black curve describes simulation performed by suppressing Raman and self-steepening terms in the propagation equation.

Metrics