Abstract

The field of photonics starts with the efficient generation of light. The generation of efficient yet highly controllable light can indeed be accomplished with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are, in principle, capable of generating white light with a 20 times greater efficiency than conventional light bulbs. Deployed on a global scale to replace conventional sources, such solid-state light sources will result in enormous benefits that, over a period of 10 years, include (1) gigantic energy savings of 1.9×1020 joule, (2) a very substantial reduction in global-warming CO2 emissions, (3) a strong reduction in the emission of pollutants such as acid-rain-causing SO2, mercury (Hg), and uranium (U), and (4) financial savings exceeding a trillion (1012) US$. These benefits can be accomplished by the “replacement paradigm” in which conventional light sources are replaced by more energy efficient, more durable, and non-toxic light sources. However, it will be shown that solid-state light sources can go beyond the replacement paradigm, by providing new capabilities including the control of spectrum, color temperature, polarization, temporal modulation, and spatial emission pattern. We will show that such future, “smart” light sources, can harness the huge potential of LEDs by offering multi-dimensional controllability that will enhance the functionality and performance of light sources in a wide range of applications. These applications include optical microscopy, imaging, display technologies, communications, networking, and transportation systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. - Express Lett.  44, L 649 (2005).
  5. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fred Schubert, E.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. - Express Lett.  44, L 649 (2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of the luminous efficacy (source efficacy) of conventional lighting technologies with the potential of light-emitting diode technology.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic flow of power and light of a white LED consisting of a blue-emitting semiconductor chip and a yellow phosphor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Potential efficiency increases of solid-state light sources. (b) Major sources of electrical power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of the multi-dimensioanl controllability of smart solid-state light sources.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Global benefits enabled by solid-state lighting technology over period of 10 years.

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