Abstract

We present a detailed analysis of realizing the unidirectional transmission by using the bistability of a nonlinear optical resonator. We show that the transmission contrast can be enhanced by an order of magnitude if the upper branch of hysteresis loop is explored with pump-assisting. It provides all-optical diodes with simple configuration and high transmission contrast.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kuwahara, "Optical isolator for semiconductor lasers," Appl. Opt. 19, 319-324(1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Yu, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,314-316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. F. Mingaleev and YuriS. Kivshar, "Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photonic crystal waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2241-2249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71,037602 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. S. Lin and S. Lan, "Unidirectional transmission in asymmetrically confined photonic crystal defects with Kerr nonlinearity," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2847-2850 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. Pinkevych, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable all-optical switching in periodic structures with liquid-crystal defects," Opt. Express 14, 2839-2844(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. S. Lin, W. Q. Wu, H. Zhou, K. F. Zhou, and S. Lan, "Enhancement of unidirectional transmission through the coupling of nonlinear photonic crystal defects," Opt. Express 14, 2429-2439(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. S. Zhao, H. Zhou, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, and X. S. Lin, "Design of highly efficient optical diodes based on the dynamics of nonlinear photonic crystal molecules," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  23, 2434-2440(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Alberucci and G. Assanto, "All-optical isolation by directional coupling," Opt. Lett. 33, 1641-1643 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, "Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 62, R7683-R7686 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Lidorikis and C. M. Soukoulis, "Pulse-driven switching in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap materials: a numerical study," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5825-5829 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Soljačić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601(R) (2002).
  18. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljačić, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000). In this paper, a commercial software developed by Rsoft Design Group (http://www.rsoftdesign.com) is used for nonlinear FDTD simulations.

2008

2007

Z. Yu, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71,037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Lin and S. Lan, "Unidirectional transmission in asymmetrically confined photonic crystal defects with Kerr nonlinearity," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2847-2850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljačić, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,314-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, "Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 62, R7683-R7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Lidorikis and C. M. Soukoulis, "Pulse-driven switching in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap materials: a numerical study," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5825-5829 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
[CrossRef]

1980

Alberucci, A.

Assanto, G.

A. Alberucci and G. Assanto, "All-optical isolation by directional coupling," Opt. Lett. 33, 1641-1643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,314-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cadieu, F. J.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

Centeno, E.

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, "Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 62, R7683-R7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chak, P.

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133(2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljačić, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741(2003).
[CrossRef]

Feise, M. W.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71,037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Felbacq, D.

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, "Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 62, R7683-R7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fratello, V. J.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,314-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

Hegde, H.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. Pinkevych, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable all-optical switching in periodic structures with liquid-crystal defects," Opt. Express 14, 2839-2844(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71,037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, H.

Lan, S.

Levy, M.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

E. Lidorikis and C. M. Soukoulis, "Pulse-driven switching in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap materials: a numerical study," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5825-5829 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. S.

Mingaleev, S. F.

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

Nishimura, S.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pinkevych, I.

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71,037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljačić, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741(2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Lidorikis and C. M. Soukoulis, "Pulse-driven switching in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap materials: a numerical study," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5825-5829 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tkeshelashvili, L.

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Yu, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W. Q.

Yang, X. B.

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljačić, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133(2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, S. F.

Zhao, N. S.

Zhou, H.

Zhou, K. F.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljačić, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741(2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133(2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "All-optical diode in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,314-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

X. S. Lin and S. Lan, "Unidirectional transmission in asymmetrically confined photonic crystal defects with Kerr nonlinearity," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2847-2850 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, "Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903-905(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76,2023-2026(1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature Mater.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nature Mater. 4,383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.

S. Pereira, P. Chak, J. E. Sipe, L. Tkeshelashvili, and K. Busch, "All-optical diode in an asymmetrically apodized Kerr nonlinear microresonator system," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2,181-190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, "Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity," Phys. Rev. B 62, R7683-R7686 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

E. Lidorikis and C. M. Soukoulis, "Pulse-driven switching in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic band gap materials: a numerical study," Phys. Rev. E 61, 5825-5829 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71,037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Soljačić, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601(R) (2002).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000). In this paper, a commercial software developed by Rsoft Design Group (http://www.rsoftdesign.com) is used for nonlinear FDTD simulations.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theoretical hysteresis loops of the asymmetrically confined PC resonator that correspond to the rightward (red) and leftward (blue) launches under the conditions of P0L =1.5P0R and δ=4.0. Obviously unidirectional transmission occurs in Part II and Part IV.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic PC resonator that contains a defect rod at the centre with a 0.15a radius, where a is the lattice constant. The radii of the normal rods are 0.30a while the radii of the two rods located at the left side of the defect rod are changed to 0.25a.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulational hysteresis loops of the asymmetrically confined PC resonator that correspond to the rightward (red circles) and leftward (blue circles) launches when the input frequency detuning is 4.0

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between the pump-assisting and self-inducing operations (a) the maximum transmission contrast ratio; (b) the maximum positive transmission for CWs with different frequency detuning.

Equations (1)

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T = P out P in = 1 1 + ( P out P 0 δ ) 2 ,

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