Abstract

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent probe used in clinical imaging. However, its utility remains limited by optical instability, rapid circulation kinetics, and exclusive uptake by the liver. Using mesocapsule (MC) constructs to encapsulate ICG, we have developed a technology to stabilize ICG’s optical properties and alter its biodistribution. We present in vivo fluorescence images of mammalian organs to demonstrate the potential application of our ICG encapsulation technology for optical imaging of specific tissues.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-D. Li and L. Huang, "Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 496-504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 505-515 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Stability assessment of indocyanine green within dextran-coated mesocapsules by absorbance spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Laser-Induced Heating of Dextran-Coated Mesocapsules Containing Indocyanine Green," Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 1431-1440 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yu, M. A. Yaseen, B. Anvari, and M. S. Wong, "Synthesis of Near-Infrared-Absorbing Nanoparticle-Assembled Capsules," Chem. Mater. 19, 1277-1284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, "Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 9266-9271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1-33 (2006).

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Pande, R. N. Kohler, E. Aikawa, R. Weissleider, and F. A. Jaffer, "Detection of macrophage activity in atherosclerosis in vivo using multichannel, high-resolution laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for Indocyanine green: Biodistribution in healthy mice," Int. J. Pharm. 308, 200-204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, L. O. Lunardi, J. M. Marchetti, C. N. Lunardi, and A. C. Tedesco, "Indocyanine Green Nanoparticles Useful for Photomedicine," Photomed. Laser Surg. 34, 514-521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. E. OwensIII and N. A. Peppas, "Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles," Int J. Pharm. 307, 93-102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. K. Rana, V. S. Murthy, J. Yu, and M. S. Wong, "Nanoparticle Self-Assembly of Heirarchically Ordered Microcapsule Structures," Adv. Mater. 17, 1145-1150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Houston, S. Ke, W. Wang, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Quality analysis of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual labeled tumor targeting probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Enhanced photo-stability, thermal-stability and aqueous-stability of indocyanine green in polymeric nanoparticulate systems," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 29-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Indocyanine green-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: preparation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro release," Int. J. Pharm. 278, 293-301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Raabe, J. Beck, R. Gerlach, M. Zimmermann, and V. Seifert, "Near-infrared indocyanine video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow," J. Neurosurg. 87, 738-745 (2003).

J. V. Frangioni, "In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 626-634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Moghimi and J. Szebeni, "Stealth liposomes and long circulating nanoparticles: critical issues in pharmacokinetics, opsonization and protein-binding properties," Prog. Lipid Res. 42, 463-478 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, "Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications," Chem. Mater. 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Brigger, C. Dubernet, and P. Couvreur, "Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 54, 631-651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoiselle, and S. Mordon, "Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography," Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 15-27 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Coleman, C. M. Laymon, and T. G. Turkington, "FDG Imaging of Lung Nodules: A Phantom Study Comparing Spect, Camera-based PET, and Dedicated PET," Radiology 210, 823 -838 (1999).
[PubMed]

W. T. Phillips, "Delivery of gamma-imaging agents by liposomes," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 37, 13-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Semple, A. Chonn, and P. R. Cullis, "Interactions of liposomes and lipid-based carrier systems with blood proteins: Relation to clearance behaviour in vivo," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 32, 3-17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Mordon, T. Desmettre, J.-M. Devoiselle, and V. Mitchell, "Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Blood Vessels in a Hamster Skin Flap Model Using a Specific ICG Formulation," Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 365-373 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

1995 (4)

J.-C. Leroux, F. De Jaeghere, B. Anner, E. Doelker, and R. Gurny, "An investigation on the role of plasma and serum opsonins on the internalization of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanoparticles by human monocytes," Life Sci. 57, 695-703 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Torchilin and V. S. Trubetskoy, "Which polymers can make nanoparticulate drug carriers long-circulating?," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 16, 141-155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Storm, S. O. Belliot, T. Daemen, and D. D. Lasic, "Surface modification of nanoparticles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 17, 31-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Haglund, D. W. Hochman, A. M. Spence, and M. S. Berger, "Enhanced optical imaging of rat gliomas and tumor margins," Neurosurgery 35, 930-940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
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Agayan, R. R.

G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
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A. N. Pande, R. N. Kohler, E. Aikawa, R. Weissleider, and F. A. Jaffer, "Detection of macrophage activity in atherosclerosis in vivo using multichannel, high-resolution laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021009 (2006).
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Alexis, F.

F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 505-515 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anner, B.

J.-C. Leroux, F. De Jaeghere, B. Anner, E. Doelker, and R. Gurny, "An investigation on the role of plasma and serum opsonins on the internalization of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanoparticles by human monocytes," Life Sci. 57, 695-703 (1995).
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Anvari, B.

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Laser-Induced Heating of Dextran-Coated Mesocapsules Containing Indocyanine Green," Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 1431-1440 (2007).
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J. Yu, M. A. Yaseen, B. Anvari, and M. S. Wong, "Synthesis of Near-Infrared-Absorbing Nanoparticle-Assembled Capsules," Chem. Mater. 19, 1277-1284 (2007).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Stability assessment of indocyanine green within dextran-coated mesocapsules by absorbance spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064031 (2007).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Tissue Distribution of Encapsulated Indocyanine Green in Healthy Mice," submitted toAnn. Biomed. Eng.
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Ashkenazi, S.

G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
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Azuma, R.

F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
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Bäumler, W.

W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, J.

A. Raabe, J. Beck, R. Gerlach, M. Zimmermann, and V. Seifert, "Near-infrared indocyanine video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow," J. Neurosurg. 87, 738-745 (2003).

Beckmann, N.

N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
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Belliot, S. O.

G. Storm, S. O. Belliot, T. Daemen, and D. D. Lasic, "Surface modification of nanoparticles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 17, 31-48 (1995).
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Bender, H.

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

Berger, M. S.

M. M. Haglund, D. W. Hochman, A. M. Spence, and M. S. Berger, "Enhanced optical imaging of rat gliomas and tumor margins," Neurosurgery 35, 930-940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergey, E. J.

L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, "Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications," Chem. Mater. 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
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Bhattarai, N.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biersack, H. J.

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

Blé, F.-X.

N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blunk, T.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brigger, I.

I. Brigger, C. Dubernet, and P. Couvreur, "Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 54, 631-651 (2002).
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Cho, M. H.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. S.

E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chonn, A.

S. C. Semple, A. Chonn, and P. R. Cullis, "Interactions of liposomes and lipid-based carrier systems with blood proteins: Relation to clearance behaviour in vivo," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 32, 3-17 (1998).
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Coleman, R. E.

R. E. Coleman, C. M. Laymon, and T. G. Turkington, "FDG Imaging of Lung Nodules: A Phantom Study Comparing Spect, Camera-based PET, and Dedicated PET," Radiology 210, 823 -838 (1999).
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Cooper, C.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couvreur, P.

I. Brigger, C. Dubernet, and P. Couvreur, "Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 54, 631-651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cullis, P. R.

S. C. Semple, A. Chonn, and P. R. Cullis, "Interactions of liposomes and lipid-based carrier systems with blood proteins: Relation to clearance behaviour in vivo," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 32, 3-17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daemen, T.

G. Storm, S. O. Belliot, T. Daemen, and D. D. Lasic, "Surface modification of nanoparticles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 17, 31-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

d'Angelo, J.

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, K. C.

G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, M. A.

G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Jaeghere, F.

J.-C. Leroux, F. De Jaeghere, B. Anner, E. Doelker, and R. Gurny, "An investigation on the role of plasma and serum opsonins on the internalization of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanoparticles by human monocytes," Life Sci. 57, 695-703 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dedieu, J. C.

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dellacherie, E.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desmaële, D.

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desmettre, T.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoiselle, and S. Mordon, "Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography," Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 15-27 (2000).
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S. Mordon, T. Desmettre, J.-M. Devoiselle, and V. Mitchell, "Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Blood Vessels in a Hamster Skin Flap Model Using a Specific ICG Formulation," Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 365-373 (1997).
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Devoiselle, J. M.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoiselle, and S. Mordon, "Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography," Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 15-27 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devoiselle, J.-M.

S. Mordon, T. Desmettre, J.-M. Devoiselle, and V. Mitchell, "Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Blood Vessels in a Hamster Skin Flap Model Using a Specific ICG Formulation," Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 365-373 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doelker, E.

J.-C. Leroux, F. De Jaeghere, B. Anner, E. Doelker, and R. Gurny, "An investigation on the role of plasma and serum opsonins on the internalization of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanoparticles by human monocytes," Life Sci. 57, 695-703 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domb, A.

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dubernet, C.

I. Brigger, C. Dubernet, and P. Couvreur, "Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 54, 631-651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, B.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, A. D.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliot, M.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellenbogen, R.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallon, P.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farokhzad, O. C.

F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 505-515 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, T.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Frangioni, "In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 626-634 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, H.

E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabikian, P.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gemeinhardt, I.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerlach, R.

A. Raabe, J. Beck, R. Gerlach, M. Zimmermann, and V. Seifert, "Near-infrared indocyanine video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow," J. Neurosurg. 87, 738-745 (2003).

Gomes, A. J.

A. J. Gomes, L. O. Lunardi, J. M. Marchetti, C. N. Lunardi, and A. C. Tedesco, "Indocyanine Green Nanoparticles Useful for Photomedicine," Photomed. Laser Surg. 34, 514-521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gref, R.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gremlich, H.-U.

N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grünwald, F.

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

Gulik, A.

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn, J.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gurny, R.

J.-C. Leroux, F. De Jaeghere, B. Anner, E. Doelker, and R. Gurny, "An investigation on the role of plasma and serum opsonins on the internalization of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanoparticles by human monocytes," Life Sci. 57, 695-703 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haglund, M. M.

M. M. Haglund, D. W. Hochman, A. M. Spence, and M. S. Berger, "Enhanced optical imaging of rat gliomas and tumor margins," Neurosurgery 35, 930-940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallahan, A.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harnisch, S.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, S. M.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, K.-G. A.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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Hochman, D. W.

M. M. Haglund, D. W. Hochman, A. M. Spence, and M. S. Berger, "Enhanced optical imaging of rat gliomas and tumor margins," Neurosurgery 35, 930-940 (1994).
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V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzer, W.

W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
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J. P. Houston, S. Ke, W. Wang, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Quality analysis of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual labeled tumor targeting probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054010 (2005).
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Huang, L.

S.-D. Li and L. Huang, "Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 496-504 (2008).
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G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyeon, T.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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Jaffer, F. A.

A. N. Pande, R. N. Kohler, E. Aikawa, R. Weissleider, and F. A. Jaffer, "Detection of macrophage activity in atherosclerosis in vivo using multichannel, high-resolution laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
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J. P. Houston, S. Ke, W. Wang, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Quality analysis of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual labeled tumor targeting probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, "Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications," Chem. Mater. 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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Kirkham, F. J.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneuer, R.

N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
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Kohler, N.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R. N.

A. N. Pande, R. N. Kohler, E. Aikawa, R. Weissleider, and F. A. Jaffer, "Detection of macrophage activity in atherosclerosis in vivo using multichannel, high-resolution laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopelman, R.

G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshima, I.

F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krebs, D.

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

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T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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M. L. J. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. Appl. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).
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M. L. J. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. Appl. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).
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W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
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R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
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R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
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R. E. Coleman, C. M. Laymon, and T. G. Turkington, "FDG Imaging of Lung Nodules: A Phantom Study Comparing Spect, Camera-based PET, and Dedicated PET," Radiology 210, 823 -838 (1999).
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O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. S.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. E.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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J.-C. Leroux, F. De Jaeghere, B. Anner, E. Doelker, and R. Gurny, "An investigation on the role of plasma and serum opsonins on the internalization of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic acid) nanoparticles by human monocytes," Life Sci. 57, 695-703 (1995).
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L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, "Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications," Chem. Mater. 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

J. P. Houston, S. Ke, W. Wang, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Quality analysis of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual labeled tumor targeting probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.-D.

S.-D. Li and L. Huang, "Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 496-504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Licha, K.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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Lloyd-Thomas, A.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lück, M.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
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A. J. Gomes, L. O. Lunardi, J. M. Marchetti, C. N. Lunardi, and A. C. Tedesco, "Indocyanine Green Nanoparticles Useful for Photomedicine," Photomed. Laser Surg. 34, 514-521 (2006).
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Lunardi, L. O.

A. J. Gomes, L. O. Lunardi, J. M. Marchetti, C. N. Lunardi, and A. C. Tedesco, "Indocyanine Green Nanoparticles Useful for Photomedicine," Photomed. Laser Surg. 34, 514-521 (2006).
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MacDonald, R.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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Mallman, P.

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

Marchetti, J. M.

A. J. Gomes, L. O. Lunardi, J. M. Marchetti, C. N. Lunardi, and A. C. Tedesco, "Indocyanine Green Nanoparticles Useful for Photomedicine," Photomed. Laser Surg. 34, 514-521 (2006).
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Marchland, M.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauerer, M.

W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minamitake, Y.

R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, V.

S. Mordon, T. Desmettre, J.-M. Devoiselle, and V. Mitchell, "Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Blood Vessels in a Hamster Skin Flap Model Using a Specific ICG Formulation," Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 365-373 (1997).
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S. M. Moghimi and J. Szebeni, "Stealth liposomes and long circulating nanoparticles: critical issues in pharmacokinetics, opsonization and protein-binding properties," Prog. Lipid Res. 42, 463-478 (2003).
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F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 505-515 (2008).
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M. L. J. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. Appl. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).
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Mordon, S.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoiselle, and S. Mordon, "Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography," Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 15-27 (2000).
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S. Mordon, T. Desmettre, J.-M. Devoiselle, and V. Mitchell, "Selective Laser Photocoagulation of Blood Vessels in a Hamster Skin Flap Model Using a Specific ICG Formulation," Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 365-373 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morimoto, Y.

F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, R. H.

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

N. Beckmann, R. Kneuer, H.-U. Gremlich, H. Karmouty-Quintana, F.-X. Blé, and M. Müller, "In Vivo mouse imaging and spectroscopy in drug discovery," NMR Biomed. 20, 154-185 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, R. H.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
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Murthy, V. S.

R. K. Rana, V. S. Murthy, J. Yu, and M. S. Wong, "Nanoparticle Self-Assembly of Heirarchically Ordered Microcapsule Structures," Adv. Mater. 17, 1145-1150 (2005).
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G. Kim, S.-W. Huang, K. C. Day, M. O'Donnell, R. R. Agayan, M. A. Day, R. Kopelman, and S. Ashkenazi, "Indocyanine-green-embedded PEBBLEs as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 044020 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogata, F.

F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, J.

O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Owens, D. E.

D. E. OwensIII and N. A. Peppas, "Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles," Int J. Pharm. 307, 93-102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmedo, H.

H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
[PubMed]

Pande, A. N.

A. N. Pande, R. N. Kohler, E. Aikawa, R. Weissleider, and F. A. Jaffer, "Detection of macrophage activity in atherosclerosis in vivo using multichannel, high-resolution laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021009 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penzkofer, A.

W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peppas, N. A.

D. E. OwensIII and N. A. Peppas, "Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles," Int J. Pharm. 307, 93-102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peracchia, M. T.

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petzelt, D.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. T.

W. T. Phillips, "Delivery of gamma-imaging agents by liposomes," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 37, 13-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pinto-Alphandary, H.

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, "Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications," Chem. Mater. 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pridgen, E.

F. Alexis, E. Pridgen, L. K. Molnar, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles," Mol. Pharm. 5, 505-515 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pun, S. H.

V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quellec, P.

R. Gref, M. Lück, P. Quellec, M. Marchland, E. Dellacherie, S. Harnisch, T. Blunk, and R. H. Müller, "'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption," Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 18, 301-313 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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A. Raabe, J. Beck, R. Gerlach, M. Zimmermann, and V. Seifert, "Near-infrared indocyanine video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow," J. Neurosurg. 87, 738-745 (2003).

Rana, R. K.

R. K. Rana, V. S. Murthy, J. Yu, and M. S. Wong, "Nanoparticle Self-Assembly of Heirarchically Ordered Microcapsule Structures," Adv. Mater. 17, 1145-1150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, I.

I. Roberts, P. Fallon, F. J. Kirkham, A. Lloyd-Thomas, C. Cooper, M. Eliot, and A. D. Edwards, "Estimation of cerbral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," Lancet 342, 1425-1425 (1993).
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V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadoqi, M.

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for Indocyanine green: Biodistribution in healthy mice," Int. J. Pharm. 308, 200-204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Enhanced photo-stability, thermal-stability and aqueous-stability of indocyanine green in polymeric nanoparticulate systems," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 29-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Indocyanine green-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: preparation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro release," Int. J. Pharm. 278, 293-301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahoo, Y.

L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, "Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications," Chem. Mater. 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, V.

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for Indocyanine green: Biodistribution in healthy mice," Int. J. Pharm. 308, 200-204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Enhanced photo-stability, thermal-stability and aqueous-stability of indocyanine green in polymeric nanoparticulate systems," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 29-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Indocyanine green-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: preparation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro release," Int. J. Pharm. 278, 293-301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirner, M.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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Schnorr, J.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifert, V.

A. Raabe, J. Beck, R. Gerlach, M. Zimmermann, and V. Seifert, "Near-infrared indocyanine video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow," J. Neurosurg. 87, 738-745 (2003).

Semple, S. C.

S. C. Semple, A. Chonn, and P. R. Cullis, "Interactions of liposomes and lipid-based carrier systems with blood proteins: Relation to clearance behaviour in vivo," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 32, 3-17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

J. P. Houston, S. Ke, W. Wang, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Quality analysis of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual labeled tumor targeting probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, J.

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Polymeric nanoparticulate delivery system for Indocyanine green: Biodistribution in healthy mice," Int. J. Pharm. 308, 200-204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Enhanced photo-stability, thermal-stability and aqueous-stability of indocyanine green in polymeric nanoparticulate systems," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 74, 29-38 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Saxena, M. Sadoqi, and J. Shao, "Indocyanine green-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: preparation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro release," Int. J. Pharm. 278, 293-301 (2004).
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V. B. Rodriguez, S. M. Henry, A. S. Hoffman, P. S. Stayton, X. Li, and S. H. Pun, "Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stieglitz, D. V.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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G. Storm, S. O. Belliot, T. Daemen, and D. D. Lasic, "Surface modification of nanoparticles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 17, 31-48 (1995).
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O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
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O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
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W. Holzer, M. Mauerer, A. Penzkofer, R. M. Szeimies, C. Abels, M. Landthaler, and W. Bäumler, "Photostability and thermal stability of indocyanine green," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 47, 155-164 (1998).
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E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
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Taupitz, M.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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Tedesco, A. C.

A. J. Gomes, L. O. Lunardi, J. M. Marchetti, C. N. Lunardi, and A. C. Tedesco, "Indocyanine Green Nanoparticles Useful for Photomedicine," Photomed. Laser Surg. 34, 514-521 (2006).
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Torchilin, V.

R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
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V. P. Torchilin and V. S. Trubetskoy, "Which polymers can make nanoparticulate drug carriers long-circulating?," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 16, 141-155 (1995).
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R. Gref, Y. Minamitake, M. T. Peracchia, V. Trubetskoy, V. Torchilin, and R. Langer, "Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres," Science 263, 1600-1603 (1994).
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Trubetskoy, V. S.

V. P. Torchilin and V. S. Trubetskoy, "Which polymers can make nanoparticulate drug carriers long-circulating?," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 16, 141-155 (1995).
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R. E. Coleman, C. M. Laymon, and T. G. Turkington, "FDG Imaging of Lung Nodules: A Phantom Study Comparing Spect, Camera-based PET, and Dedicated PET," Radiology 210, 823 -838 (1999).
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O. Veiseh, C. Sun, J. Gunn, N. Kohler, P. Gabikian, D. Lee, N. Bhattarai, R. Ellenbogen, R. Sze, A. Hallahan, J. Olson, and M. Zhang, "Optical and MRI Multifunctional Nanoprobe for Targeting Gliomas," Nano Lett. 5, 1003-1008 (2005).
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Verbavatz, J. M.

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
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Wagner, S.

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
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Wang, W.

J. P. Houston, S. Ke, W. Wang, C. Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Quality analysis of in vivo near-infrared fluorescence and conventional gamma images acquired using a dual labeled tumor targeting probe," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054010 (2005).
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A. N. Pande, R. N. Kohler, E. Aikawa, R. Weissleider, and F. A. Jaffer, "Detection of macrophage activity in atherosclerosis in vivo using multichannel, high-resolution laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 021009 (2006).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Laser-Induced Heating of Dextran-Coated Mesocapsules Containing Indocyanine Green," Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 1431-1440 (2007).
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J. Yu, M. A. Yaseen, B. Anvari, and M. S. Wong, "Synthesis of Near-Infrared-Absorbing Nanoparticle-Assembled Capsules," Chem. Mater. 19, 1277-1284 (2007).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Stability assessment of indocyanine green within dextran-coated mesocapsules by absorbance spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Rana, V. S. Murthy, J. Yu, and M. S. Wong, "Nanoparticle Self-Assembly of Heirarchically Ordered Microcapsule Structures," Adv. Mater. 17, 1145-1150 (2005).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Tissue Distribution of Encapsulated Indocyanine Green in Healthy Mice," submitted toAnn. Biomed. Eng.
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Yang, I.

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
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Yaseen, M. A.

J. Yu, M. A. Yaseen, B. Anvari, and M. S. Wong, "Synthesis of Near-Infrared-Absorbing Nanoparticle-Assembled Capsules," Chem. Mater. 19, 1277-1284 (2007).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Laser-Induced Heating of Dextran-Coated Mesocapsules Containing Indocyanine Green," Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 1431-1440 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Stability assessment of indocyanine green within dextran-coated mesocapsules by absorbance spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Tissue Distribution of Encapsulated Indocyanine Green in Healthy Mice," submitted toAnn. Biomed. Eng.
[PubMed]

Yu, J.

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Laser-Induced Heating of Dextran-Coated Mesocapsules Containing Indocyanine Green," Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 1431-1440 (2007).
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J. Yu, M. A. Yaseen, B. Anvari, and M. S. Wong, "Synthesis of Near-Infrared-Absorbing Nanoparticle-Assembled Capsules," Chem. Mater. 19, 1277-1284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Stability assessment of indocyanine green within dextran-coated mesocapsules by absorbance spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064031 (2007).
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R. K. Rana, V. S. Murthy, J. Yu, and M. S. Wong, "Nanoparticle Self-Assembly of Heirarchically Ordered Microcapsule Structures," Adv. Mater. 17, 1145-1150 (2005).
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M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Tissue Distribution of Encapsulated Indocyanine Green in Healthy Mice," submitted toAnn. Biomed. Eng.
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H. Palmedo, H. Bender, F. Grünwald, P. Mallman, P. Zamora, D. Krebs, and H. J. Biersack, "Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintimammography in the detection of breast tumors," Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 24, 1138-1145 (1997).
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Zijlstra, W. G.

M. L. J. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. A. Mook, and W. G. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. Appl. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).
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Zimmermann, M.

A. Raabe, J. Beck, R. Gerlach, M. Zimmermann, and V. Seifert, "Near-infrared indocyanine video angiography: a new method for intraoperative assessment of vascular flow," J. Neurosurg. 87, 738-745 (2003).

Acad. Radiol. (1)

T. Fischer, I. Gemeinhardt, S. Wagner, D. V. Stieglitz, J. Schnorr, K.-G. A. Hermann, B. Ebert, D. Petzelt, R. MacDonald, K. Licha, M. Schirner, V. Krenn, T. Kamradt, and M. Taupitz, "Assessment of Unspecific Near-Infrared Dyes in Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Experimental Arthritis," Acad. Radiol. 13, 4-13 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. (4)

V. P. Torchilin and V. S. Trubetskoy, "Which polymers can make nanoparticulate drug carriers long-circulating?," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 16, 141-155 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Brigger, C. Dubernet, and P. Couvreur, "Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 54, 631-651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Storm, S. O. Belliot, T. Daemen, and D. D. Lasic, "Surface modification of nanoparticles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 17, 31-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Semple, A. Chonn, and P. R. Cullis, "Interactions of liposomes and lipid-based carrier systems with blood proteins: Relation to clearance behaviour in vivo," Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 32, 3-17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. (2)

R. Gref, A. Domb, P. Quellec, T. Blunk, R. H. Muller, J. M. Verbavatz, and R. Langer, "The controlled intravenous delivery of drugs using PEG-coated sterically stabilized nanospheres," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 16, 215-233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Phillips, "Delivery of gamma-imaging agents by liposomes," Adv. Drug. Delivery Rev. 37, 13-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. K. Rana, V. S. Murthy, J. Yu, and M. S. Wong, "Nanoparticle Self-Assembly of Heirarchically Ordered Microcapsule Structures," Adv. Mater. 17, 1145-1150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. Kim, S. Park, J. E. Lee, S. M. Jin, J. H. Lee, I. S. Lee, I. Yang, J.-S. Kim, S. K. Kim, M. H. Cho, and T. Hyeon, "Designed Fabrication of Multifunctional Magnetic Gold Nanoshells and Their Application to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Photothermal Therapy," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 7754-7758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Tissue Distribution of Encapsulated Indocyanine Green in Healthy Mice," submitted toAnn. Biomed. Eng.
[PubMed]

Ann. Plast. Surg. (1)

F. Ogata, R. Azuma, M. Kikuchi, I. Koshima, and Y. Morimoto, "Novel lymphography using indocyanine green dye for near-infrared fluorescence labeling," Ann. Plast. Surg. 58, 652-655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, H. Fujii, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Image-guided oncologic surgery using invisible light: Completed pre-clinical development for sentinel lymph node mapping," Ann. Surg. Oncol. 13, 1671-1681 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 8, 1-33 (2006).

Biomaterials (1)

M. T. Peracchia, S. Harnisch, H. Pinto-Alphandary, A. Gulik, J. C. Dedieu, D. Desmaële, J. d'Angelo, R. H. Müller, and P. Couvreur, "Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth ® polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles," Biomaterials 20, 1269-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biotechnol. Prog. (1)

M. A. Yaseen, J. Yu, M. S. Wong, and B. Anvari, "Laser-Induced Heating of Dextran-Coated Mesocapsules Containing Indocyanine Green," Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 1431-1440 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (381 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual model of a mesocapsule containing ICG construct coated with nanoparticle micelles such as magnetite/polyacrylic acid composite, with cutaway provided to display the capsule interior. ICG resides within the positively charged polymer-salt aggregate core and the capsule shell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence spectral profiles measured by Maestro in vivo imaging system. For comparison, the autofluorescence profile, taken from the intestinal region of interest (ROI) of an image from a non-injected mouse image, is also provided. The profiles are normalized to the fluorescence peak of free ICG solution.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Computed contrast (C) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) for ROIs corresponding to heart and lungs (a and b) and the bloodstream (c and d). Data are provided as means ± standard deviation for ICG solution, Fe300 MCs, and PL100 MCs (n=3)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single frame excerpt from a time-sequence video displaying false-color fluorescence images of mice injected with ICG solution (left), PL100 MCs (center), and Fe300 MCs (right) at various timepoints (Media 1). The featured images were acquired at t=20 min. post injection.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fluorescence images of harvested organs from mice injected with different ICG formulations. Animals were sacrificed at 90 minutes post-injection. For each formulation, ICG accumulated in large amounts within the intestine and liver, resulting in strong fluorescence signal. Both organs can be clearly identified at the bottom of each image (intestines on the left and liver on the right) in (b). Dashed circles correspond to locations of the harvested heart (H), lungs (L), kidney (K), spleen (S), and blood sample (B).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

ICG quantification of harvested organs from mice injected with different ICG formulations. Animals were sacrificed at 90 minutes post-injection.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Physical properties of MC systems utilized for this study.

Equations (3)

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I ̅ = j = 1 m I j m
SNR = I ̅ T I ̅ B j m ( I j B I ̅ B ) 2 m
C = I ̅ T I ̅ B I ̅ B

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