Abstract

We introduce a novel telescope consisting of a pinhole-like camera with rotatable MEMS micromirrors substituting for pinholes. The design is ideal for observations of transient luminous phenomena or fast-moving objects, such as upper atmospheric lightning and bright gamma ray bursts. The advantage of the MEMS “obscura telescope” over conventional cameras is that it is capable both of searching for events over a wide field of view, and fast zooming to allow detailed investigation of the structure of events. It is also able to track the triggering object to investigate its space–time development, and to center the interesting portion of the image on the photodetector array. We present the proposed system and the test results for the MEMS obscura telescope which has a field of view of 11.3°, sixteen times zoom-in and tracking within 1 ms.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. A. Roming et al., "The swift ultra-violet/optical telescope," Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95-142 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. P. Pasko, "Electric jets," Nature 423, 927-929 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. H. Park, G. K. Garipov, and B. A. Khrenov, "Tracking mirror for measurements of extreme energy cosmic rays from space," Proc. 28th ICRC Cosmic Ray Conf. (Tsukuba) HE1.5, 1109-1112 (2003).
  7. I. H. Park, "MEMS based space telescope for extreme energy cosmic rays experiments," Nucl. Phys. B - Proc. Suppl. 134, 196-201 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. F. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A mems-based projection display," Proc. IEEE 86, 1687-1704 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Hishinuma and E. H. Yang, "Piezoelectric unimorph micro actuator arrays for single-crystal silicon continuous-membrane deformable mirror," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 370-379 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic comb drives," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kim, D. Christensen, and L. Lin, "Monolithic 2-D scanning mirror using self-aligned angular vertical comb drives,"IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2307-2309 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, "High-speed phase modulation using the RPC method with a digital micromirror-array device," Opt. Express 14, 5588-5593 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Dayton, J. Gonglewski, S. Restaino, J. Martin, J. Phillips, M. Hartman, S. Browne, P. Kervin, J. Snodgass, N. Heimann, M. Shilko, R. Pohle, B. Carrion, C. Smith, and D. Thiel, "Demonstration of new technology MEMS and liquid crystal adaptive optics on bright astronomical objects and satellites," Opt. Express 10, 1508-1519 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  15. G. K. Garipov and B. A. Khrenov, "Camera obscura for observation of EAS images in Cherenkov light," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 20, 1981-1988 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2006

Y. Hishinuma and E. H. Yang, "Piezoelectric unimorph micro actuator arrays for single-crystal silicon continuous-membrane deformable mirror," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 370-379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic comb drives," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, "High-speed phase modulation using the RPC method with a digital micromirror-array device," Opt. Express 14, 5588-5593 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Kim, D. Christensen, and L. Lin, "Monolithic 2-D scanning mirror using self-aligned angular vertical comb drives,"IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2307-2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. A. Roming et al., "The swift ultra-violet/optical telescope," Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95-142 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

I. H. Park, "MEMS based space telescope for extreme energy cosmic rays experiments," Nucl. Phys. B - Proc. Suppl. 134, 196-201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. P. Pasko, "Electric jets," Nature 423, 927-929 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

1998

P. F. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A mems-based projection display," Proc. IEEE 86, 1687-1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. K. Garipov and B. A. Khrenov, "Camera obscura for observation of EAS images in Cherenkov light," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 20, 1981-1988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asfur, M.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Band, D.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, M.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S.

Carrion, B.

Chen, A. B.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C. A.

D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, D.

J. Kim, D. Christensen, and L. Lin, "Monolithic 2-D scanning mirror using self-aligned angular vertical comb drives,"IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2307-2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cline, T.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dayton, D.

Devir, A.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, M. R.

P. F. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A mems-based projection display," Proc. IEEE 86, 1687-1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ford, L.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fukunishi, H.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garipov, G. K.

G. K. Garipov and B. A. Khrenov, "Camera obscura for observation of EAS images in Cherenkov light," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 20, 1981-1988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

Gonglewski, J.

Hah, D.

D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, M.

Heimann, N.

Hishinuma, Y.

Y. Hishinuma and E. H. Yang, "Piezoelectric unimorph micro actuator arrays for single-crystal silicon continuous-membrane deformable mirror," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 370-379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A mems-based projection display," Proc. IEEE 86, 1687-1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, W. S.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, R. R.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Israelevitch, P.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, J.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jun, C. H.

D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. W.

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic comb drives," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kervin, P.

Kessel, P. F.

P. F. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A mems-based projection display," Proc. IEEE 86, 1687-1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khrenov, B. A.

G. K. Garipov and B. A. Khrenov, "Camera obscura for observation of EAS images in Cherenkov light," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 20, 1981-1988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. K.

D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. Christensen, and L. Lin, "Monolithic 2-D scanning mirror using self-aligned angular vertical comb drives,"IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2307-2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kouveliotou, C.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, U.

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic comb drives," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. C.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lestrade, P.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levin, Z.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

J. Kim, D. Christensen, and L. Lin, "Monolithic 2-D scanning mirror using self-aligned angular vertical comb drives,"IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2307-2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

Matteson, J.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meegan, C.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. E.

P. F. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A mems-based projection display," Proc. IEEE 86, 1687-1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moalem, M.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paciesas, W.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. H.

I. H. Park, "MEMS based space telescope for extreme energy cosmic rays experiments," Nucl. Phys. B - Proc. Suppl. 134, 196-201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pasko, V. P.

V. P. Pasko, "Electric jets," Nature 423, 927-929 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendleton, G.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Phillips, J.

Pohle, R.

Price, C.

Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Restaino, S.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Roming, P. W. A.

P. W. A. Roming et al., "The swift ultra-violet/optical telescope," Space Sci. Rev. 120, 95-142 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaefer, B.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shilko, M.

Smith, C.

Snodgass, J.

Solgaard, O.

I. W. Jung, U. Krishnamoorthy, and O. Solgaard, "High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic comb drives," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 563-571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, H. T.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teegarden, B.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, D.

Wang, Y. C.

H. T. Su, R. R. Hsu, A. B. Chen, Y. C. Wang, W. S. Hsiao, W. C. Lai, L. C. Lee, M. Sato, and H. Fukunishi, "Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere," Nature 423, 974-976 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, R.

D. Band, J. Matteson, L. Ford, B. Schaefer, D. Palmer, B. Teegarden, T. Cline, M. Briggs, W. Paciesas, G. Pendleton, G. Fishman, C. Kouveliotou, C. Meegan, R. Wilson, and P. Lestrade, "BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity," Astrophys. J. 413, 281-292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yair, Y.

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Y. Hishinuma and E. H. Yang, "Piezoelectric unimorph micro actuator arrays for single-crystal silicon continuous-membrane deformable mirror," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 370-379 (2006).
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Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
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J. Kim, D. Christensen, and L. Lin, "Monolithic 2-D scanning mirror using self-aligned angular vertical comb drives,"IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2307-2309 (2005).
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Y. Yair, C. Price, Z. Levin, J. Joseph, P. Israelevitch, A. Devir, M. Moalem, B. Ziv, and M. Asfur, "Sprite observations from the space shuttle during the Mediterranean Israeli dust experiment (MEIDEX)," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 65, 635-642 (2003).
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Y. Hishinuma and E. H. Yang, "Piezoelectric unimorph micro actuator arrays for single-crystal silicon continuous-membrane deformable mirror," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 370-379 (2006).
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D. Hah, C. A. Choi, C. K. Kim, and C. H. Jun, "A self-aligned vertical comb-drive actuator on an SOI wafer for a 2D scanning micro mirror," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 1148-1156 (2004).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the MEMS obscura telescope. The Trigger Mirror (TM) is positioned close to the focal surface to give the telescope a wide Field of View (FOV) (area 1) for event finding. The Zoom Mirror (ZM) is installed with a longer focal length to give the telescope a higher lateral resolution (area 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated telescope imaging: (a) the input light source distribution at the ground, (b) the image at the focal plane, 800 km above the ground as viewed using the TM, and (c) the zoom-in image as viewed using the ZM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The structural design drawing (a) and photograph (b) of a fabricated MEMS obscura telescope.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The MEMS micromirror for two-axis rotation: (a) a schematic view of the mirror actuator, (b) SEM image of the comb actuator with the mirror plate removed and (c) micromirror array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The measured static angular tilt response of the micromirror.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The measured UV data from 64 pixels. Each box shows the light intensity of a pixel as a function of time. (a) Data taken from the TM. (b) Data taken from the ZM which moves the zoom-in image to the center of the detector.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Detector images of the TM (left) and ZM (right) during the initial stages.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Detector images of TM (left) and ZM (right) which “zooms in” the light source.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Detector images of TM (left) and ZM (right) which “track” the light source moved from the point shown in Fig. 8.

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