Abstract

Electrically switchable emission in a terahertz quantum cascade laser is demonstrated. Two active region designs are incorporated into the same waveguide, forming a heterogeneous cascade that lases at frequencies around 2.6 THz and 3.0 THz. We find that the position of the active regions within the waveguide does not effect the sequence in which the two colours reach laser threshold. The devices show good performance, with 2.6THz and 3.0THz modes operating up to 60K and 91K respectively and displaying thresholds as low as 79Acm-2 for the 2.6 THz mode.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

2005

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, C. F., and A. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6874/full/415883a.html.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, C. F., and A. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6874/full/415883a.html.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, C. F., and A. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6874/full/415883a.html.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grahn, H. T.

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

Hey, R.

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

Hu, Q.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Kawase, K.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

Kohler, R.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. L.

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

Ogawa, Y.

Reno, J. L.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Schrottke, L.

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

Sergent, A.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, L.

C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, C. F., and A. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6874/full/415883a.html.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spagnolo, V.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Straub, A.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

Teitsworth, S. W.

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

Tredicucci, A.

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Williams, B. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/241116/1.
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/141102/1.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/86/111115/1.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Cho, "Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 569- 581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

H. Beere, J. Fowler, J. Alton, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, and S. Barbieri, "MBE growth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 278, 756-764 (2005), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ6-4FFGJPD-B/2/b481fecf39ba54dad92970a739be68b6.
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. Gmachl, L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, C. F., and A. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6874/full/415883a.html.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B.

S. L. Lu, L. Schrottke, S. W. Teitsworth, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, "Formation of electric-field domains in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum cascade laser structures," Phys. Rev. B. 73, 033311 (2006), http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e033311.

Other

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Nature Photon. 1, 517-525 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2007.166.
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nature Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2007.3.
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674-1676 (2004),n http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/85/1674/1.
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J. R. Freeman, C. Worrall, V. Apostolopoulos, J. Alton, H. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Frequency Manipulation of THz Bound-to-Continuum Quantum-Cascade Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 303-305 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs all.jsp?arnumber=4439736.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pulsed light-current-voltage characteristics for wafer V428 (left) and V429 (right) operating at a range of temperatures. The insets show the ordering of ARs when processed in the double metal configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) shows CW spectra from wafers V428 (left pane) and V429 (right pane). Each shows emission at the lower frequency ceasing then lasing recommencing at the higher frequency. Figure (b) and (c) show the corresponding IVs for V428 and V429, respectively, taken in CW operation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

LIVs for ARs A and B when grown and processed as single colour devices.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Upper pane: Calculated intersubband absorption for design A in a low field state, estimated to be 0.5kVcm-1, and design B aligned at 1.9kV cm-1. The lower pane has calculated intersubband absorption for design A aligned at 2.6kVcm-1 and design B at 9kVcm-1.

Equations (1)

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χ = Γ ( α w + α m )

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