Abstract

Multiple scattering in a sample presents a significant limitation to achieve meaningful structural information at deeper penetration depths in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Previous studies suggest that the spectral region around 1.7 µm may exhibit reduced scattering coefficients in biological tissues compared to the widely used wavelengths around 1.3 µm. To investigate this long-wavelength region, we developed a wavelength-swept laser at 1.7 µm wavelength and conducted OCT or optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) for the first time in this spectral range. The constructed laser is capable of providing a wide tuning range from 1.59 to 1.75 µm over 160 nm. When the laser was operated with a reduced tuning range over 95 nm at a repetition rate of 10.9 kHz and an average output power of 12.3 mW, the OFDI imaging system exhibited a sensitivity of about 100 dB and axial and lateral resolution of 24 µm and 14 µm, respectively. We imaged several phantom and biological samples using 1.3 µm and 1.7 µm OFDI systems and found that the depth-dependent signal decay rate is substantially lower at 1.7 µm wavelength in most, if not all samples. Our results suggest that this imaging window may offer an advantage over shorter wavelengths by increasing the penetration depths as well as enhancing image contrast at deeper penetration depths where otherwise multiple scattered photons dominate over ballistic photons.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttle, M. J. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Thrane, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Anderson, "Analysis of optical coherence tomography systems based on extended Huygens-Fresnel principle," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 484-494 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, "Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy," Appl. Opt. 34, 5699-5707 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. T. Pan, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Contrast limits of coherence-gated imaging in scattering media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2979-2983 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. K. Wang, "Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2281-2299 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Schmitt and A. Knuttle, "Model of optical coherence tomography of heterogenous tissue," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1231-1242 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, "Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors," Opt. Express 15, 18033-18049 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Monte Carlo simulation of an optical coherence tomography signal in homogeneous turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307-2320 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Thrane, M. B. Frosz, T. M. Jorgensen, A. Tycho, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Anderson, "Extraction of optical scattering parameters and attenuation compensation in optical coherence tomography images of multilayered tissue structures," Opt. Lett. 29, 1641-1643 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, "Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties," J. Biomed. Opt.  2, 401-4171997.
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. K. Wang and X. Xu, "Concurrent enhancement of imaging depth and contrast for optical coherence tomography by hyperosmotic agents," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 948-9532001.
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  14. Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, "Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446-455 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, "In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid," Opt. Express 13, 3252-3258 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, "In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid," Opt. Express 14, 4403-4411 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 μm," Opt. Lett. 29, 2846-2848 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, "Optical constants of water in the 200 nm to 200 µm wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 12, 555-563 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Kou, D. Labrie, and P. Chylek, "Refractive indices of water and ice in the 0.65 - 2.5 μm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 32, 3531-3540 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftima, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttle, and R. F. Knuttle, "Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by low coherence interferometry," Appl. Opt. 32, 6032-6042 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. W. Colston Jr, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Assessment of Oral Health, Monograms in Oral Science, R. V. Faller, ed., (Basel, Karger, 2000), Vol 17, pp 32-55.

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, "In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid," Opt. Express 14, 4403-4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, "In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1040 nm - enhanced penetration into the choroid," Opt. Express 13, 3252-3258 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

R. K. Wang, "Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2281-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Monte Carlo simulation of an optical coherence tomography signal in homogeneous turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307-2320 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, "Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446-455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttle, M. J. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1973 (1)

Adie, S. G.

Anderson, P. E.

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

Bonner, R. F.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftima, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Chen, Y.

Chylek, P.

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, "In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid," Opt. Express 14, 4403-4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftima, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttle, M. J. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, R.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farkas, D. L.

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, "Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446-455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frosz, M. B.

Fujimoto, J. G.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 μm," Opt. Lett. 29, 2846-2848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hillman, T. R.

Hsiung, P.

Iftima, N.

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, T. M.

Knuttle, A.

Knuttle, R. F.

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kou, L.

Labrie, D.

Lee, E. C.

Lim, H.

Mujat, M.

Nelson, L. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, "Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446-455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y. T.

Považay, B.

Querry, M. R.

Sampson, D. D.

Sattmann, H.

Schmitt, J. M.

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftima, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

Thennadil, S. N.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

Troy, T. L.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tycho, A.

Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Monte Carlo simulation of an optical coherence tomography signal in homogeneous turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307-2320 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, "Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2281-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, "Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy," Appl. Opt. 34, 5699-5707 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttle, M. J. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, G.

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Monte Carlo simulation of an optical coherence tomography signal in homogeneous turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307-2320 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Circulation (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy," Circulation 93, 1206-1213 (1996).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Pan and D. L. Farkas, "Noninvasive imaging of living human skin with dual-wavelength optical coherence tomography in two and three dimensions," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 446-455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76-79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the spectral range 400-2500 nm," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 836-842 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Monte Carlo simulation of an optical coherence tomography signal in homogeneous turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307-2320 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttle, M. J. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, "Signal degradation by multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography of dense tissue: a Monte Carlo study towards optical clearing of biotissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2281-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, "Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties," J. Biomed. Opt.  2, 401-4171997.
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang and X. Xu, "Concurrent enhancement of imaging depth and contrast for optical coherence tomography by hyperosmotic agents," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 948-9532001.
[CrossRef]

B. W. Colston Jr, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Assessment of Oral Health, Monograms in Oral Science, R. V. Faller, ed., (Basel, Karger, 2000), Vol 17, pp 32-55.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the wavelength swept laser in the 1.7-µm spectral range.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Output spectrum of the laser in Design 1. (b) Optical absorption curve of water (blue) reported in Ref. [22], superimposed with the laser spectrum (black).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured laser output of Design 2. (a) Peak hold output spectrum. (b) Time domain trace.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the OFDI system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Signal measured with a -55 dB partial reflector. The detection sensitivity is 103 dB at a depth of 0.5 mm (red) and decreases with the increasing depth (dotted line: a Gaussian fit). A typical single A-line is shown in dark cyan; 500 A-lines at each depth were averaged to reduce the fluctuations in noise floor (red, dark red, navy, and dark yellow). Asterisks (*) denotes the ghost peaks due to the etalon effect of the SOA chip.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

10% Intralipid solution. (a,b) OCT images obtained with the 1.3 µm and 1.7 µm systems, respectively. The dynamic range of grayscale is 45 dB, same in both images. (c,d) Depth profiles, averaged over 150 A-lines in (a) and (b), respectively. Dashed lines are linear regressions. The slope was used to determine the total attenuation and scattering coefficients.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Silicone red rubber. (a,b) OCT images obtained with the 1.3 µm and 1.7 µm system, respectively. The dynamic range is 47 dB same in both images. (c,d) Depth profiles, averaged over 150 A-lines in (a) and (b), respectively. Dashed line represents linear fit over the region beyond which multiple scattering starts to cause nonlinear dependence on depth.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Human tooth. (a,b) OFDI intensity images obtained (a) with the 1.3 µm system and (b) 1.7 µm system. The grayscale used in both images has the same dynamic range of 40 dB. (c) A-line profile averaged over the area enclosed between dashed vertical bars shown in (a). (d) A-line profile obtained from (b). The slope of the signal decay is distinctly different between the pre- and post-natal regions in the enamel. Inset shows a photograph of the sample where the green line represents the imaged site.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Human fingertip imaged with (a) 1.3 µm system and (b) 1.7 µm system. The images have the same dynamic range of 40 dB. (c,d) Space-averaged A-line profiles obtained at λ=1.3 µm, (c), and 1.7 µm, (d).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Enhanced penetration depths at 1.7 µm versus 1.3 µm wavelength. (a) Depth profiles from 10% Intralipid solution (Fig. 6). The ballistic penetration depth is 2.5 mm at λ=1.7 µm versus 2.0 mm at λ=1.3 µm. (b) Depth profiles from silicone rubber (Fig. 7). The ballistic penetration depth is 1.0 mm at λ=1.7 µm versus 0.7 mm at λ=1.3 µm. The ballistic penetration is limited by the onset of multiple scattering marked by the deviation from the linear slope (Lines). (c) The magnitude of multiple-scattering signal estimated by taking the difference of the depth profile from the linear regression in (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparision of scattering and total attenuation coefficients.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( z ) K μ b A ( z ) P i exp ( 2 μ i z ) ,
10 log 10 ( P ( z ) ) 8.69 μ t z + 10 log 10 ( K μ b A P i )
μ t = μ a + μ sc .

Metrics