Abstract

The spectral and angular radiation properties of gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells are investigated using Mie theory for concentric multilayer spheres. The spectral tunability of multilayer nanoshells is explained and characterized by a plasmon hybridization model and a universal scaling principle. A thinner intermediate silica layer, scaled by particle size, red shifts the plasmon resonance. This shift is relatively insensitive to the overall particle size and follows the universal scaling principle with respect to the resonant wavelength of a conventional silica-gold core-shell nanoshell. The extra tunability provided by the inner core further shifts the extinction peak to longer wavelengths, which is difficult to achieve on conventional sub-100 nm nanoshells due to limitations in synthesizing ultrathin gold coatings. We found multilayer nanoshells to be more absorbing with a larger gold core, a thinner silica layer, and a thinner outer gold shell. Both scattering intensity and angular radiation pattern were found to differ from conventional nanoshells due to spectral modulation from the inner core. Multilayer nanoshells may provide more backscattering at wavelengths where silica-gold core-shell nanoshells predominantly forward scatter.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (6)

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093,119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Qian, Y. Tan, and S. Ding, "A label-free biosensor based on gold nanoshell monolayers for monitoring biomolecular interactions in diluted whole blood," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 1166-1170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, J. Jiang, S. S. Lee, and J. Y. Ying, "Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of silica-coated gold and silver nanoparticles," Langmuir 24, 5842-5848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwatz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, "Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells," Opt. Express 16, 1590-1599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar," Nano Lett. 7, 729-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation," Nano Lett. 7, 2080-2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Khlebtsov, V. A. Bogatyrev, L. A. Dykman, and N. G. Khlebtsov, "Spectra of resonance light scattering of gold nanoshells: Effects of polydispersity and limited electron free path," Opt. Spectrosc. 102, 233-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, "Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery," J. Control. Release 123, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, "Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: Extension from particle pairs to nanoshells," Nano Lett. 7, 2854-2858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (10)

X. Xia, Y. Liu, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, "Engineering sub-100 nm multi-layer nanoshells," Nanotechnology 17, 5435-5440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Khlebtsov and N. Khlebtsov, "Ultrasharp light-scattering resonances of structured nanospheres: effects of size-dependent dielectric functions," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

P. Jain, K. Lee, I. El-Sayed, and M. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: Applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238-7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. Hafner, "Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 6, 683-688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structures nanoshperes for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells." Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z. Li, J. Chen, B. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, "Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3048-3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, "Structural tunability of the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoshells," Nano Lett. 3, 543-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419-422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Weissleder, "A clearer vision for in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 19, 316-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Oldenburg, J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Averitt, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. LizMarzan, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, "Synthesis of nanosized gold-silica core-shell particles," Langmuir 12, 4329-4335 (1996).

1976 (1)

M. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. Mook, and W. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. App. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ameer, G.

K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structures nanoshperes for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ameer, G. A.

X. Xia, Y. Liu, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, "Engineering sub-100 nm multi-layer nanoshells," Nanotechnology 17, 5435-5440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R.

R. Averitt, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

X. Xia, Y. Liu, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, "Engineering sub-100 nm multi-layer nanoshells," Nanotechnology 17, 5435-5440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structures nanoshperes for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berciaud, S.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bickford, L.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bikram, M.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, "Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery," J. Control. Release 123, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogatyrev, V. A.

B. N. Khlebtsov, V. A. Bogatyrev, L. A. Dykman, and N. G. Khlebtsov, "Spectra of resonance light scattering of gold nanoshells: Effects of polydispersity and limited electron free path," Opt. Spectrosc. 102, 233-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brandl, D.

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandl, D. W.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cang, H.

Chang, E.

Chang, J.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structures nanoshperes for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cognet, L.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, C.

Day, E. S.

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, S.

Y. Wang, W. Qian, Y. Tan, and S. Ding, "A label-free biosensor based on gold nanoshell monolayers for monitoring biomolecular interactions in diluted whole blood," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 1166-1170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells." Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Dykman, L. A.

B. N. Khlebtsov, V. A. Bogatyrev, L. A. Dykman, and N. G. Khlebtsov, "Spectra of resonance light scattering of gold nanoshells: Effects of polydispersity and limited electron free path," Opt. Spectrosc. 102, 233-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, I.

P. Jain, K. Lee, I. El-Sayed, and M. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: Applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238-7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M.

P. Jain, K. Lee, I. El-Sayed, and M. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: Applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238-7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation," Nano Lett. 7, 2080-2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, "Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: Extension from particle pairs to nanoshells," Nano Lett. 7, 2854-2858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estrada, A.

Fu, K.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gobin, A.

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobin, A. M.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, "Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery," J. Control. Release 123, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, G. P.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grady, N. K.

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J.

C. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. Hafner, "Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 6, 683-688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, J. H.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar," Nano Lett. 7, 729-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N.

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells." Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Oldenburg, J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Averitt, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419-422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, J. Jiang, S. S. Lee, and J. Y. Ying, "Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of silica-coated gold and silver nanoparticles," Langmuir 24, 5842-5848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar," Nano Lett. 7, 729-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093,119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, L. I.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, L.

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093,119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation," Nano Lett. 7, 2080-2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J.

S. Oldenburg, J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P.

P. Jain, K. Lee, I. El-Sayed, and M. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: Applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238-7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation," Nano Lett. 7, 2080-2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, "Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: Extension from particle pairs to nanoshells," Nano Lett. 7, 2854-2858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Y. Han, J. Jiang, S. S. Lee, and J. Y. Ying, "Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of silica-coated gold and silver nanoparticles," Langmuir 24, 5842-5848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, B.

B. Khlebtsov and N. Khlebtsov, "Ultrasharp light-scattering resonances of structured nanospheres: effects of size-dependent dielectric functions," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, B. N.

B. N. Khlebtsov, V. A. Bogatyrev, L. A. Dykman, and N. G. Khlebtsov, "Spectra of resonance light scattering of gold nanoshells: Effects of polydispersity and limited electron free path," Opt. Spectrosc. 102, 233-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khlebtsov, N.

B. Khlebtsov and N. Khlebtsov, "Ultrasharp light-scattering resonances of structured nanospheres: effects of size-dependent dielectric functions," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

B. N. Khlebtsov, V. A. Bogatyrev, L. A. Dykman, and N. G. Khlebtsov, "Spectra of resonance light scattering of gold nanoshells: Effects of polydispersity and limited electron free path," Opt. Spectrosc. 102, 233-241 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korgel, B. A.

Kwant, G.

M. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. Mook, and W. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. App. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).

Lal, S.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landsman, M.

M. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. Mook, and W. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. App. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).

Larsson, E. M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasne, D.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lassiter, B.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

Lassiter, J. B.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, F.

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

P. Jain, K. Lee, I. El-Sayed, and M. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: Applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238-7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.-H.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells." Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

Y. Han, J. Jiang, S. S. Lee, and J. Y. Ying, "Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of silica-coated gold and silver nanoparticles," Langmuir 24, 5842-5848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewinski, N.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liao, H.

C. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. Hafner, "Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 6, 683-688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A. W. H.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.W. H.

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lippitz, M.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

X. Xia, Y. Liu, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, "Engineering sub-100 nm multi-layer nanoshells," Nanotechnology 17, 5435-5440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structures nanoshperes for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loo, C.

Lounis, B.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowery, A.

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowery, A. R.

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mook, G.

M. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. Mook, and W. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. App. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).

Nammalvar, V.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehl, C.

C. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. Hafner, "Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 6, 683-688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehl, C. L.

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar," Nano Lett. 7, 729-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nieminen, T. A.

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093,119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar," Nano Lett. 7, 729-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, "Structural tunability of the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoshells," Nano Lett. 3, 543-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419-422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, S.

S. Oldenburg, J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Payne, J. D.

Pfefer, T. J.

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, "Structural tunability of the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoshells," Nano Lett. 3, 543-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419-422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Y. Wang, W. Qian, Y. Tan, and S. Ding, "A label-free biosensor based on gold nanoshell monolayers for monitoring biomolecular interactions in diluted whole blood," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 1166-1170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419-422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, I.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093,119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sang, K.

Sarkar, D.

R. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwatz, J. A.

Sharp, K.

Smith, D. K.

Sun, J.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Sutherland, D. S.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, F.

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamarat, P.

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Qian, Y. Tan, and S. Ding, "A label-free biosensor based on gold nanoshell monolayers for monitoring biomolecular interactions in diluted whole blood," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 1166-1170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A. L.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnell, J. W.

van Dijk, M. A.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Qian, Y. Tan, and S. Ding, "A label-free biosensor based on gold nanoshell monolayers for monitoring biomolecular interactions in diluted whole blood," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 1166-1170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, "A clearer vision for in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 19, 316-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells." Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, "Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery," J. Control. Release 123, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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S. Oldenburg, J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Averitt, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, R. E.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, "Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery," J. Control. Release 123, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, B.

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

Xia, X.

X. Xia, Y. Liu, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, "Engineering sub-100 nm multi-layer nanoshells," Nanotechnology 17, 5435-5440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Ying, J. Y.

Y. Han, J. Jiang, S. S. Lee, and J. Y. Ying, "Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of silica-coated gold and silver nanoparticles," Langmuir 24, 5842-5848 (2008).
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M. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. Mook, and W. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. App. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

L. Hirsch, A. Gobin, A. Lowery, F. Tam, R. Drezek, N. Halas, and J. West, "Metal nanoshells," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 15-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Oldenburg, J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, "Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897-2899 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

Y. Wang, W. Qian, Y. Tan, and S. Ding, "A label-free biosensor based on gold nanoshell monolayers for monitoring biomolecular interactions in diluted whole blood," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 1166-1170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Nanosci. (1)

K. Fu, J. Sun, A.W. H. Lin, H. Wang, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, "Polarized angular dependent light scattering properties of bare and PEGylated gold nanoshells," Curr. Nanosci. 3, 167-170 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanomed. (1)

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells," Int. J. Nanomed. 1, 149-154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. App. Physiol. (1)

M. Landsman, G. Kwant, G. Mook, and W. Zijlstra, "Light-absorbing properties, stability, and spectral stabilization of indocyanine green," J. App. Physiol. 40, 575-583 (1976).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093,119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structures nanoshperes for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005 (2005).
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B. Khlebtsov and N. Khlebtsov, "Ultrasharp light-scattering resonances of structured nanospheres: effects of size-dependent dielectric functions," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, N. Lewinski, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 315102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Agrawal, S. Huang, A. W. H. Lin, M.-H. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. A. Drezek, and T. J. Pfefer, "Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (1)

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, "Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery," J. Control. Release 123, 219-227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

P. Jain, K. Lee, I. El-Sayed, and M. El-Sayed, "Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: Applications in biological imaging and biomedicine," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 7238-7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (2)

Y. Han, J. Jiang, S. S. Lee, and J. Y. Ying, "Reverse microemulsion-mediated synthesis of silica-coated gold and silver nanoparticles," Langmuir 24, 5842-5848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Nano Lett. (10)

P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, "Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: Extension from particle pairs to nanoshells," Nano Lett. 7, 2854-2858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Close encounters between two nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. Hafner, "Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 6, 683-688 (2006).
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F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar," Nano Lett. 7, 729-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, D. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. Halas, "Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure," Nano Lett. 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, "Structural tunability of the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoshells," Nano Lett. 3, 543-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation," Nano Lett. 7, 2080-2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256-1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Nehl, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, F. Tam, N. J. Halas, and J. H. Hafner, "Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells," Nano Lett. 4, 2355-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, "Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy," Nanotechnology 19, 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Y. Liu, V. Backman, and G. A. Ameer, "Engineering sub-100 nm multi-layer nanoshells," Nanotechnology 17, 5435-5440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

R. Weissleder, "A clearer vision for in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 19, 316-317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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B. N. Khlebtsov, V. A. Bogatyrev, L. A. Dykman, and N. G. Khlebtsov, "Spectra of resonance light scattering of gold nanoshells: Effects of polydispersity and limited electron free path," Opt. Spectrosc. 102, 233-241 (2007).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 10,856-10,860 (2006).

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486-3495 (2006).
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H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover Publications, 1981).

H. Wang, K. Fu, R. A. Drezek, and N. J. Halas, "Light scattering from spherical plasmonic nanoantennas: effects of nanoscale roughness," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 84, 191-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (199 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2415 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometries of (a) silica-gold core-shell conventional nanoshells, and (b) gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated spectra of CNS and MNS with various inner core radii while the silica and outer radius remain the same (Media 1). The red shift of MNS from CNS is indicated by lambda shift.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mie calculation results for wavelength shifts from the MNS (R 1/R 2/R 3) vis-NIR plasmon resonance peak relative to that of CNS (R 2/R 3) with the same silica and outer gold radius versus intermediate silica thickness scaled by particle size of MNS. t=(R 2-R 1)/R 3, α=972.43, β=13.48.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated extinction spectra of R20/30/35 nm MNS immersed in various media with distinct refractive indices.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scattering-to-extinction ratio at plasmonic resonant wavelengths of MNS with (a) inner gold core radius kept at 10 nm and varying the silica and outer gold layer thickness, (b) silica layer thickness kept at 10 nm and varying the inner gold core radius and outer gold layer thickness, (c) outer gold shell kept at 20 nm and varying the inner gold core radius and silica layer thickness. Absorption-to-extinction ratio (d) at plasmonic resonant wavelengths of MNS with the overall diameter and outer gold shell thickness fixed and varying the inner gold core radius and silica layer thickness.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angular radiation pattern of R90/125/140 nm MNS (blue) and R125/140 nm CNS (green) at (a) 550 nm, (b) 755 nm, (c) 1145 nm, (d) 1270 nm and (e) scattering spectra of MNS (blue) and CNS (green) (Media 2). Nanoshells are located in the center of the plot, and the incident wave enters from the bottom (180°).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Extinction efficiency spectra for Rx/100 nm CNS with varying silica core radius x. (b) Anisotropy factor plot for corresponding CNS at different wavelengths. (c) Extinction efficiency spectra for Rx/85/100 nm MNS with varying gold core radius x. (d) Anisotropy factor plot for corresponding MNS at different wavelengths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Surface plasmon resonance peak shift of R20/35/50 nm (MNS1), R30/35/50 nm (MNS2), and R35/50 nm (CNS) in different dielectric media (λ p 2>λ p 1).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g = 0 π S 11 ( θ ) cos θ 2 π sin θ d θ 0 π S 11 ( θ ) 2 π sin θ d θ

Metrics