Abstract

A practicable and economic method for the generation and full characterization of laser pulses ranging down to sub 7 fs duration with energies spanning the full µJ domain is presented. The method utilizes a self-induced and self-guiding filamentation of titanium-sapphire based, amplified pulses in air for spectral broadening, a standard chirp mirror compression scheme and transient grating frequency resolved optical gating for determining the spectral phase over the full visible to near infrared range. In this manner, few-cycle laser pulses with a high quality in the spatial beam profile have been generated in an robust arrangement with a minimal amount of standard optical components for their full characterization. The optical scheme demonstrates an uncomplicated, versatile access to this regime of pulsed laser radiation accompanied by a comprehensive analysis.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
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  21. R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
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  23. I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, C. Guo, and G. N. Gibson, "Dispersion-free transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Appl. Opt. 38, 5250-5253 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Lehner and N. Auby, "Stabilization of the Kerr effect by self induced ionization: Formation of optical light spatially localized structures," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1996-2005 (2000).
  31. A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. T. Vuong, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. P. Hauri, and A. L. Gaeta, "Spectral reshaping and pulse compression via sequential filamentation in gases," Opt. Express 16, 390-401 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence," Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. Galler and T. Feurer, "Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization," Appl. Phys. B:  90, 427-430 (2008).

2008 (6)

L. Di Labio, W. Luthy, V. Romano, and F. SandozT. Feurer "Superbroadband fluorescence fiber fabricated with granulated oxides," Opt. Lett. 33, 1050-1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Toward single-shot measurement of a broadband ultrafast continuum,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 34-40 (2008).

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

D. J. Kane, "Principal components generalized projections: a review," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A120-A132 (2008).

L. T. Vuong, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. P. Hauri, and A. L. Gaeta, "Spectral reshaping and pulse compression via sequential filamentation in gases," Opt. Express 16, 390-401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galler and T. Feurer, "Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization," Appl. Phys. B:  90, 427-430 (2008).

2007 (4)

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Burzo, A. V. Chugreev, and A. V. Sokolov, "Stimulated rotational Raman generation controlled by strongly driven vibrational coherence in molecular deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 75, 022515/1-022515/10 (2007).

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Reports 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. M. Zheltikov " Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses," Physics-Uspekhi 49, 605-628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31, 274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence," Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Lehner and N. Auby, "Stabilization of the Kerr effect by self induced ionization: Formation of optical light spatially localized structures," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1996-2005 (2000).

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, C. Guo, and G. N. Gibson, "Dispersion-free transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Appl. Opt. 38, 5250-5253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band "Dynamics of short pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4242-4253 (1997).

J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 519-521 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: Theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of Self-Phase Modulation and Small-Scale Filaments in Crystals and Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akzbek, N.

N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of Self-Phase Modulation and Small-Scale Filaments in Crystals and Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alfimov, M. V.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auby, N.

T. Lehner and N. Auby, "Stabilization of the Kerr effect by self induced ionization: Formation of optical light spatially localized structures," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1996-2005 (2000).

Band, Y. B.

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band "Dynamics of short pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4242-4253 (1997).

Baum, P.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Burzo, A. M.

A. M. Burzo, A. V. Chugreev, and A. V. Sokolov, "Stimulated rotational Raman generation controlled by strongly driven vibrational coherence in molecular deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 75, 022515/1-022515/10 (2007).

Chin, S. L.

N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chugreev, A. V.

A. M. Burzo, A. V. Chugreev, and A. V. Sokolov, "Stimulated rotational Raman generation controlled by strongly driven vibrational coherence in molecular deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 75, 022515/1-022515/10 (2007).

Clement, T. S.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Reports 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curley, P. F.

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto "Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793-2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Di Labio, L.

Diddams, S. A.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Eckle, P.

Feurer, T.

A. Galler and T. Feurer, "Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization," Appl. Phys. B:  90, 427-430 (2008).

L. Di Labio, W. Luthy, V. Romano, and F. SandozT. Feurer "Superbroadband fluorescence fiber fabricated with granulated oxides," Opt. Lett. 33, 1050-1052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 519-521 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, M. A.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabolde, P.

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Toward single-shot measurement of a broadband ultrafast continuum,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 34-40 (2008).

Gaeta, A. L.

Galler, A.

A. Galler and T. Feurer, "Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization," Appl. Phys. B:  90, 427-430 (2008).

Gallmann, L.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

Gibson, G. N.

Grillon, G.

Guandalini, A.

Guo, C.

Hauri, C. P.

Hirasawa, M.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Karasawa, N.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence," Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Kornelis, W.

Kozma, I. Z.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krumbgel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kusaka, S.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Toward single-shot measurement of a broadband ultrafast continuum,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 34-40 (2008).

Lehner, T.

T. Lehner and N. Auby, "Stabilization of the Kerr effect by self induced ionization: Formation of optical light spatially localized structures," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1996-2005 (2000).

Li, L.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Liu, X.

Lochbrunner, S.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Martens, R. B.

Luthy, W.

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: Theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

Mejean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitrofanov, A. V.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morita, R.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Reports 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 62-64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, N.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nibarger, J. P.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto "Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793-2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Podshivalov, A. A.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romano, V.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoz, F.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidhammer, U.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of Self-Phase Modulation and Small-Scale Filaments in Crystals and Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, A. V.

A. M. Burzo, A. V. Chugreev, and A. V. Sokolov, "Stimulated rotational Raman generation controlled by strongly driven vibrational coherence in molecular deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 75, 022515/1-022515/10 (2007).

Squier, J.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31, 274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

Suguro, A.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto "Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793-2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 519-521 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Toward single-shot measurement of a broadband ultrafast continuum,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 34-40 (2008).

J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 519-521 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trippenbach, M.

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band "Dynamics of short pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4242-4253 (1997).

Van Engen, A. G.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vuong, L. T.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woeste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, V.

Yamane, K.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhavoronkov, N.

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zheltikov " Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses," Physics-Uspekhi 49, 605-628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B 70, 67-75 (2008).

A. Galler and T. Feurer, "Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization," Appl. Phys. B:  90, 427-430 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto "Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793-2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers," J Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Toward single-shot measurement of a broadband ultrafast continuum,"J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 34-40 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Morita and M. Hirasawa and N. Karasawa and S. Kusaka and N. Nakagawa and K. Yamane and L. Li and A. Suguro and M. Yamashita, "Sub-5 fs optical pulse characterization," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1710-1720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. Akzbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191, 353 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov "Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 453-456 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Reports (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Reports 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. M. Burzo, A. V. Chugreev, and A. V. Sokolov, "Stimulated rotational Raman generation controlled by strongly driven vibrational coherence in molecular deuterium," Phys. Rev. A 75, 022515/1-022515/10 (2007).

M. Trippenbach and Y. B. Band "Dynamics of short pulse splitting in dispersive nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4242-4253 (1997).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Lehner and N. Auby, "Stabilization of the Kerr effect by self induced ionization: Formation of optical light spatially localized structures," Phys. Rev. E 61, 1996-2005 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. A. Zozulya, S. A. Diddams, A. G. Van Engen, and T. S. Clement, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence, and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of Self-Phase Modulation and Small-Scale Filaments in Crystals and Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physics-Uspekhi (1)

A. M. Zheltikov " Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses," Physics-Uspekhi 49, 605-628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: Theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woeste, "White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup: The initial laser pulses (40 fs, 0.6-1.5 mJ) are focused with spherical mirror SM1 f=2 m. Dispersion management is achieved by four bounces on a commercial chirped mirror pair CM1 & CM2, (Layertec) with GVD oscillation compensation and average negative GVD of ≈(-)60 fs2 in wavelength range from 680-900 nm. Total reflectivity is ≥ 99.8% from 650-1000 nm at incident angle of 1°. Within the TGFROG, SM2 focuses the three parallel beams in a BK7 glass. k 1 and k 2 are horizontally separated and create a transient grating on which k 3 is scattered. This generates the spectrally dispersed FWM signal (kSb and kSr ).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transversal mode characterization of the filament output with an input of 1.3 mJ pulse energy. (a) Horizontal (light green) and vertical (black) cross section of corresponding image in (b). (c) Spectra taken at different transverse intensities: maximum (light orange), 50% (black), 25% (light green), 11% (blue) of the maximum in the transversal profile.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) TG FROG traces and associated projection on time axis of the uncompressed bandwidth from 370-950 nm after filamentation with 1.3 mJ pulse energy. Temporally split and spectrally strongly modulated NIR part experiences complicated phase distortions whereas the VIS spectral components obey quadratic phase. (b) Phase retrieval of white light spectrum from the FROG trace in (a) with the original pulse spectrum (grey line), retrieved spectral phase (green dotted line) and spectrum (black line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulse compression using chirped mirror pair with (-)60 fs2/bounce and an input pulse energy of (a) 1.0 mJ (b) 650 µJ and (c) 760 µJ for filamentation. The obtained filament out is radially selected, attenuating the output in (a) from 950 to 30 µJ with a transversal mode radius of 500 µm, (b) from 620 to 20 µJ with a transversal mode radius of 500 µm and (c) from 720 to 25 µJ full radius of the transversal mode (see Fig. 2). Circles correspond to measured data points whereas straight line displays a Gaussian fit. Highest input pulse energy in (a) causes modulation at NIR wavelengths and successive reduction of input pulse energy leads to clean temporal pulse compression in (b) and (c). 1 mJ denotes threshold energy before increased temporal satellites arise. Measurements (b) and (c) compare the compressibility of the filament output for different radial selection of the transversal mode output of the filament.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral phase retrieval of few cycle pulses generated in atmospheric air and subsequent compression by chirped mirrors. (a) Modulated spectral and temporal structures appear for shortest FWHM of 6.3 fs in Fig. 4a. (b) Filamentation with 0.65 mJ results in smooth spectral broadening with linear spectral phase and clean temporal profile corresponding to Fig. 4b.

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