Abstract

We consider the use of single-photon counting detectors in coherence-domain imaging. Detectors operated in this mode exhibit reduced noise, which leads to increased sensitivity for weak light sources and weakly reflecting samples. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the possibility of using superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) for optical coherence-domain reflectometry (OCDR). These detectors are sensitive over the full spectral range that is useful for carrying out such imaging in biological samples. With counting rates as high as 100 MHz, SSPDs also offer a high rate of data acquisition if the light flux is sufficient.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

2005 (2)

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 μm," Opt. Lett. 30, 1171-1173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. Drexler, "Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 182-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, "Unbalanced versus balanced operation in an optical coherence tomography system," Appl. Opt. 39, 173-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. S. Larchuk, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "Statistics of Entangled-Photon Coincidences in Parametric Downconversion," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 755, 680-686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, "A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404-1406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. C. Teich, "Field-theoretical treatment of photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 201-203 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. C. Teich, "Infrared Heterodyne Detection," Proc. IEEE 56, 37-46 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Baney, D. M.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, "A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404-1406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, "Power-efficient nonreciprocal interferometer and linear-scanning fiber-optic catheter for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 531-533 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

Chen, Z.

Chudoba, C.

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drakinsky, V.

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, "Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghanta, R. K.

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Jiang, Y.

Kaurova, N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Korneev, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kouminov, P.

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larchuk, T. S.

T. S. Larchuk, M. C. Teich, and B. E. A. Saleh, "Statistics of Entangled-Photon Coincidences in Parametric Downconversion," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 755, 680-686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitbeg, R.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lim, H.

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milostnaya, I.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minaeva, O.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nasr, M. B.

Nelson, J. S.

Okunev, O.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Povazay, B.

Rubtsova, I.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Saleh, B. E. A.

Sattmann, H.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, "Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherzer, E.

Semenov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

Slysz, W.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, and A. Dzardanov, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
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W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, "A simple intensity noise reduction technique for optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404-1406 (1992).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, K. Smirnov, P. Kouminov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, V. Drakinsky, J. Zhang, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Fabrication of nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 192-195 (2003).
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W. Drexler, "Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
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S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4,861-865 (1998).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitbeg, W. Drexler, and H. Sattmann, "A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Commun. 185, 57-64 (2000).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications," Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480-1488 (2005).
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Other (5)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd Ed. (Wiley, 2007), Chaps. 11, 12, 18, and 24.

M. C. Teich, "Quantum Theory of Heterodyne Detection," in Proc. Third Photocond. Conf., E. M. Pell, ed., (Pergamon Press, New York, 1971), pp. 1-5.

M. C. Teich and B. E. A. Saleh, "Photon Bunching and Antibunching," in Progress in Optics, vol. 26, edited by E. Wolf (North-Holland/Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988), Chap. 1, pp. 1-104.

S. B. Lowen and M. C. Teich, Fractal-Based Point Processes (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 3.

M. E. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications (Academic, 2006).

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