Abstract

We investigate the laser-induced damage performance of KD2–xHxPO4 crystals following exposure to X-ray irradiation. Two important issues addressed by our study are i) the performance of the material when operational conditions lead to its exposure to ionizing irradiation and ii) the way the radiation-induced transient defects interact with the pre-existing precursor defects responsible for laser-induced damage. Our results indicate that the damage performance of the material is affected by exposure to X-rays. This behavior is attributed to a change in the physical properties of the precursors which, in turn, affect their ability to initiate damage following interaction with X-ray generated defects.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. N. Rashkovich, KDP-family single crystals (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1991).
  2. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), 2nd ed.
  3. D. H. Munro, S. N. Dixit, A. B. Langdon, and J. R. Murray, "Polarization smoothing in a convergent beam," Appl. Opt. 43, 6639-6647 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, "Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world's most powerful laser," Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113-152 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R.W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, "Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023-4037 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning," Proc. SPIE 5273, 74-82 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "The Wavelength Dependence of Laser Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. E. Hughes and W. G. Moulton, "Electron Spin Resonance of Irradiated KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1359-1360 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Volkel, W. Windsch, and W. Urbanowitschius, "Dynamics of irradiation defect centers in potassium dihydrogen phosphate observed by EPR," J. Mag. Reson. 18, 57-63 (1975).
  10. J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, "Paramagnetic and optical studies of radiation-damage centers in K(H1-xDx)2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627-3631 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Diéguez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló López, "Optical absorption and luminescence induced by X-rays in KDP, DKDP, and ADP," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369-3374 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Wells, E. Budzinski, and H. C. Box, "Electron-spin-resonance and ENDOR studies of irradiated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6340-6346 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).
  14. K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. A. Kramers, "On the theory of X-ray absorption and the continuous X-ray spectrum," Philos. Mag. 46, 836-871 (1923).
  19. H. Endert and M. L. Martin, "The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage thresholds of KDP crystals," Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65-K66 (1981).
  20. H. Endert and W. Melle, "Laser-Induced damage in KDP crystals," Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141-148 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-Induced Damage in Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, "Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH2¡xPO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters," Opt. Lett. 31, 3110-3112 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. L. Spaeth, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (internal communication, 2006).

2006

2004

D. H. Munro, S. N. Dixit, A. B. Langdon, and J. R. Murray, "Polarization smoothing in a convergent beam," Appl. Opt. 43, 6639-6647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning," Proc. SPIE 5273, 74-82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "The Wavelength Dependence of Laser Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-Induced Damage in Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, "Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world's most powerful laser," Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113-152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

1997

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. W. Wells, E. Budzinski, and H. C. Box, "Electron-spin-resonance and ENDOR studies of irradiated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6340-6346 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

E. Diéguez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló López, "Optical absorption and luminescence induced by X-rays in KDP, DKDP, and ADP," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369-3374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Endert and W. Melle, "Laser-Induced damage in KDP crystals," Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141-148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

H. Endert and M. L. Martin, "The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage thresholds of KDP crystals," Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65-K66 (1981).

1978

J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, "Paramagnetic and optical studies of radiation-damage centers in K(H1-xDx)2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627-3631 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. Volkel, W. Windsch, and W. Urbanowitschius, "Dynamics of irradiation defect centers in potassium dihydrogen phosphate observed by EPR," J. Mag. Reson. 18, 57-63 (1975).

1970

R.W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, "Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023-4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1963

W. E. Hughes and W. G. Moulton, "Electron Spin Resonance of Irradiated KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1359-1360 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1923

H. A. Kramers, "On the theory of X-ray absorption and the continuous X-ray spectrum," Philos. Mag. 46, 836-871 (1923).

Agulló López, F.

E. Diéguez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló López, "Optical absorption and luminescence induced by X-rays in KDP, DKDP, and ADP," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369-3374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, L. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Box, H. C.

J. W. Wells, E. Budzinski, and H. C. Box, "Electron-spin-resonance and ENDOR studies of irradiated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6340-6346 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Budzinski, E.

J. W. Wells, E. Budzinski, and H. C. Box, "Electron-spin-resonance and ENDOR studies of irradiated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6340-6346 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, A. K.

Cabrera, J. M.

E. Diéguez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló López, "Optical absorption and luminescence induced by X-rays in KDP, DKDP, and ADP," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369-3374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "The Wavelength Dependence of Laser Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catella, G. C.

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chirila, M. M.

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, J. M.

J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, "Paramagnetic and optical studies of radiation-damage centers in K(H1-xDx)2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627-3631 (1978).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J. J.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, "Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world's most powerful laser," Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113-152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dehaven, M. R.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demange, P.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, "Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH2¡xPO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters," Opt. Lett. 31, 3110-3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, "Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH2¡xPO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters," Opt. Lett. 31, 3110-3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "The Wavelength Dependence of Laser Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diéguez, E.

E. Diéguez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló López, "Optical absorption and luminescence induced by X-rays in KDP, DKDP, and ADP," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369-3374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S. N.

Endert, H.

H. Endert and W. Melle, "Laser-Induced damage in KDP crystals," Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141-148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Endert and M. L. Martin, "The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage thresholds of KDP crystals," Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65-K66 (1981).

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning," Proc. SPIE 5273, 74-82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-Induced Damage in Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floyd, R. L.

Garces, N. Y.

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L. E.

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

Hopper, R.W.

R.W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, "Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023-4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, W. E.

W. E. Hughes and W. G. Moulton, "Electron Spin Resonance of Irradiated KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1359-1360 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kramers, H. A.

H. A. Kramers, "On the theory of X-ray absorption and the continuous X-ray spectrum," Philos. Mag. 46, 836-871 (1923).

Land, T. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-Induced Damage in Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langdon, A. B.

Luken, J. R.

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. L.

H. Endert and M. L. Martin, "The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage thresholds of KDP crystals," Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65-K66 (1981).

McMillan, J. A.

J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, "Paramagnetic and optical studies of radiation-damage centers in K(H1-xDx)2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627-3631 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Melle, W.

H. Endert and W. Melle, "Laser-Induced damage in KDP crystals," Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141-148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, K. E.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, W. G.

W. E. Hughes and W. G. Moulton, "Electron Spin Resonance of Irradiated KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1359-1360 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Munro, D. H.

Murray, J. R.

Negres, R. A.

Radousky, H. B.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "The Wavelength Dependence of Laser Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning," Proc. SPIE 5273, 74-82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-Induced Damage in Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runkel, M.

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

Siekhaus, W. J.

Stevens, K. T.

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

Uhlmann, D. R.

R.W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, "Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023-4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Urbanowitschius, W.

G. Volkel, W. Windsch, and W. Urbanowitschius, "Dynamics of irradiation defect centers in potassium dihydrogen phosphate observed by EPR," J. Mag. Reson. 18, 57-63 (1975).

Vital, R. L.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Volkel, G.

G. Volkel, W. Windsch, and W. Urbanowitschius, "Dynamics of irradiation defect centers in potassium dihydrogen phosphate observed by EPR," J. Mag. Reson. 18, 57-63 (1975).

Wells, J. W.

J. W. Wells, E. Budzinski, and H. C. Box, "Electron-spin-resonance and ENDOR studies of irradiated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6340-6346 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P. K.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, "Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world's most powerful laser," Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113-152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windsch, W.

G. Volkel, W. Windsch, and W. Urbanowitschius, "Dynamics of irradiation defect centers in potassium dihydrogen phosphate observed by EPR," J. Mag. Reson. 18, 57-63 (1975).

Yan, M.

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

Zaitseva, N. P.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, "Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH2¡xPO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters," Opt. Lett. 31, 3110-3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. T. Stevens, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, G. C. Catella, and J. R. Luken, "Identification of the intrinsic self-trapped hole center in KD2PO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1503-1505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

H. Endert and M. L. Martin, "The effect of chromium impurities on the laser damage thresholds of KDP crystals," Cryst. Res. Technol. 16, K65-K66 (1981).

Int. Mater. Rev.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, "Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world's most powerful laser," Int. Mater. Rev. 47, 113-152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R.W. Hopper and D. R. Uhlmann, "Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4023-4037 (1970).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Garces, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and N. P. Zaitseva, "Identification of electron and hole traps in KH2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 47-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. E. Hughes and W. G. Moulton, "Electron Spin Resonance of Irradiated KH2PO4 and KD2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1359-1360 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McMillan and J. M. Clemens, "Paramagnetic and optical studies of radiation-damage centers in K(H1-xDx)2PO4," J. Chem. Phys. 68, 3627-3631 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. Diéguez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló López, "Optical absorption and luminescence induced by X-rays in KDP, DKDP, and ADP," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3369-3374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Wells, E. Budzinski, and H. C. Box, "Electron-spin-resonance and ENDOR studies of irradiated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6340-6346 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mag. Reson.

G. Volkel, W. Windsch, and W. Urbanowitschius, "Dynamics of irradiation defect centers in potassium dihydrogen phosphate observed by EPR," J. Mag. Reson. 18, 57-63 (1975).

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Mag.

H. A. Kramers, "On the theory of X-ray absorption and the continuous X-ray spectrum," Philos. Mag. 46, 836-871 (1923).

Phys. Rev. B

S. D. Setzler, K. T. Stevens, L. E. Halliburton, M. Yan, N. P. Zaitseva, and J. J. De Yoreo, "Hydrogen atoms in KH2PO4 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 57, 2643-2646 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "The Wavelength Dependence of Laser Induced Damage: Determining the Damage Initiation Mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi

H. Endert and W. Melle, "Laser-Induced damage in KDP crystals," Phys. Status Solidi 74, 141-148 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning," Proc. SPIE 5273, 74-82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. N. Rashkovich, KDP-family single crystals (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1991).

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), 2nd ed.

M. L. Spaeth, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (internal communication, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Top) Schematic view of laser-induced damage testing in DKDP crystals (prior to and after X-ray irradiation along x). (Bottom) Typical intensity distribution in the continuous X-ray spectrum from Rh target (100 keV, 3 mA) and the linear attenuation coefficient of X-rays in DKDP (left and right inset graphs, respectively).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Damage density profiles at 355-nm measured in high-PPD, pristine and 8-hr irradiated material (open and closed squares, respectively), and low-PPD pristine material (open circles). Average PPDs at fixed fluences from irradiated low-PPD material are also shown. Dashed lines through the data points are drawn as a guide to the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Local damage pinpoint density versus X-ray beam penetration depth after testing at fixed fluence (at 355-nm) in high-PPD, pristine and 2-hr irradiated material (open and closed squares, respectively). Solid lines through the data illustrate the average PPD values.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency count of local damage pinpoint densities versus exposure time after testing at fixed fluence (at 355-nm) in pristine and irradiated high-PPD material (clear and hashed boxes, respectively).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Average damage pinpoint density versus exposure time after testing at fixed fluences (at 355-nm) in both pristine (0 hrs) and irradiated high-PPD and low-PPD material.

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