Abstract

A novel and promising technique for the fabrication of electro-optically active single crystalline organic waveguides from 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile (OH1) is presented. OH1 is an interesting material for photonic applications due to the large electro-optic coefficients (r 333=109±4 pm/V at 632.8 nm) combined with a relatively high crystal symmetry (orthorhombic with point group mm2). Due to the very favorable growth characteristics, large-area (> 150 mm 2) single crystalline thin films with very good optical quality and thickness between 0.05-10 µm have been grown on amorphous glass substrates. We have developed and optimized optical lithography and reactive ion etching processes for the fabrication of wire optical waveguides with dimensions of w×h=3.4×3.5 µm2 and above. The technique is capable of producing low loss integrated optical waveguides having propagation losses of 2 dB/cm with a high refractive index contrast between core-cladding and core-substrate of Δn=1.23 and 0.72, respectively at 980 nm. Electro-optic phase modulation in these waveguides has been demonstrated at 632.8 nm and 852 nm. Calculations show that with an optimized electrode configuration the half-wave voltage×length product V π·L can be reduced from 8.4 Vcm, as obtained in our device, to 0.3 Vcm in the optimized case. This allows for the fabrication of sub-1 V half-wave voltage, organic electro-optic modulators with highly stable chromophore orientation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Günter, ed., Nonlinear Optical Effects and Materials, vol. 72 of Optical Science (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2000).
  2. M. C. Gupta and J. Ballato, The Handbook of Photonics (CRC Press, 2007).
  3. H. S. Nalwa, ed., Organic Electronics and Photonics, vol. 2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2008).
  4. Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).
  6. Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators," Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Thakur, J. Titus, and A. Mishra, "Single-crystal thin films of organic molecular salt may lead to a new generation of electro-optic devices," Opt. Eng. 42, 456-458 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of Organic Salts with Large 2nd-Order Optical Nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Ruiz, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth of DAST," Cryst. Growth Des. (to be published) (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).
  28. C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Agullo-Lopez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Aullo-Rueda, Electrooptics: Penomena, Materials and Applications (Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 1994).
  32. C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995).
  33. G. Joshi and S. M. Pawde, "Effect of molecular weight on dielectric properties of polyvinyl alcohol films," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 102, 1014-1016 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (6)

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ruiz, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth of DAST," Cryst. Growth Des. (to be published) (2008).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators," Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Joshi and S. M. Pawde, "Effect of molecular weight on dielectric properties of polyvinyl alcohol films," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 102, 1014-1016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).

2004 (1)

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, J. Titus, and A. Mishra, "Single-crystal thin films of organic molecular salt may lead to a new generation of electro-optic devices," Opt. Eng. 42, 456-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of Organic Salts with Large 2nd-Order Optical Nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anhoj, T. A.

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aravazhi, S.

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asselberghs, I.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartlome, R.

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bleckmann, P.

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, M.

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, F. D. J.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Brunschwig, B. S.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, D. R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choubey, A.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clays, K.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coe, B. J.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coles, S. J.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, P.

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dobeli, M.

Dunayevskiy, I.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ehrensperger, M.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Figi, H.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geis, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gelbrich, T.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glavcheva, Z.

J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gramlich, V.

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Günter, P.

B. Ruiz, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth of DAST," Cryst. Growth Des. (to be published) (2008).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators," Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. A.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haxha, S.

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).

Haxha, V.

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).

Hubner, J.

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, C.

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Hursthouse, M. B.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators," Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

B. Ruiz, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth of DAST," Cryst. Growth Des. (to be published) (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, A. M.

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, G.

G. Joshi and S. M. Pawde, "Effect of molecular weight on dielectric properties of polyvinyl alcohol films," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 102, 1014-1016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juvalta, F.

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleb, D.-C.

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

Kolev, T.

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, K. E.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O. P.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators," Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.-P.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. J.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-J.

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Light, M. E.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manetta, S.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, M. F.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of Organic Salts with Large 2nd-Order Optical Nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, A.

M. Thakur, J. Titus, and A. Mishra, "Single-crystal thin films of organic molecular salt may lead to a new generation of electro-optic devices," Opt. Eng. 42, 456-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mowers, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, K.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, J.

J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pawde, S. M.

G. Joshi and S. M. Pawde, "Effect of molecular weight on dielectric properties of polyvinyl alcohol films," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 102, 1014-1016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of Organic Salts with Large 2nd-Order Optical Nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Preut, H.

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).

Rezzonico, D.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rezzonico, M. Jazbinsek, A. Guarino, O. P. Kwon, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic Charon polymeric microring modulators," Opt. Express 16, 613-627 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, B.

B. Ruiz, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth of DAST," Cryst. Growth Des. (to be published) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, W. P.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of Organic Salts with Large 2nd-Order Optical Nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schurmann, M.

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. I.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Shi, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinta, R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stillhart, M.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, K.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tazawa, H.

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

M. Thakur, J. Titus, and A. Mishra, "Single-crystal thin films of organic molecular salt may lead to a new generation of electro-optic devices," Opt. Eng. 42, 456-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Titus, J.

M. Thakur, J. Titus, and A. Mishra, "Single-crystal thin films of organic molecular salt may lead to a new generation of electro-optic devices," Opt. Eng. 42, 456-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wostyn, K.

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yancheva, D.

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yun, H.

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Zauner, D. A.

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, and M. Dobeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, S. Haxha, V. Haxha, and K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of high-speed optical modulators," Act. Pass. Opt. Comp. Comm. Vi 6389, X3890-X3890 (2006).

Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online (1)

T. Kolev, Z. Glavcheva, D. Yancheva, M. Schurmann, D.-C. Kleb, H. Preut, and P. Bleckmann, "2-3-[2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidenemalononitrile," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 57, o561-o562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (4)

B. J. Coe, J. A. Harris, I. Asselberghs, K. Wostyn, K. Clays, A. Persoons, B. S. Brunschwig, S. J. Coles, T. Gelbrich, M. E. Light, M. B. Hursthouse, and K. Nakatani, "Quadratic optical nonlinearities of N-methyl and N-aryl pyridinium salts," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 347-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O.-P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J. I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, "Organic Phenolic Configurationally Locked Polyene Single Crystals for Electro-Optic and Terahertz Wave Applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. (to be published) (2008).

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys. (1)

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: Present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Molecular engineering of stilbazolium derivatives for second-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Mater. 19, 3512-3518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth," Chem. Mater. 18, 4049-4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

B. Ruiz, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth of DAST," Cryst. Growth Des. (to be published) (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bosch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,Ndimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

G. Joshi and S. M. Pawde, "Effect of molecular weight on dielectric properties of polyvinyl alcohol films," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 102, 1014-1016 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials," J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. Ogawa, S. Okada, Z. Glavcheva, and H. Nakanishi, "Preparation, properties and structures of 1-methyl-4-2-[4- (dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenylpyridinium crystals with various counter anions," J. Cryst. Growth 310, 836-842 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Techn. (1)

H. Tazawa, Y. H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Techn. 24, 3514-3519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

T. A. Anhoj, A. M. Jorgensen, D. A. Zauner, and J. Hubner, "The effect of soft bake temperature on the polymerization of SU-8 photoresist," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1819-1824 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, "Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Thakur, J. Titus, and A. Mishra, "Single-crystal thin films of organic molecular salt may lead to a new generation of electro-optic devices," Opt. Eng. 42, 456-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Science (2)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of Organic Salts with Large 2nd-Order Optical Nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

P. Günter, ed., Nonlinear Optical Effects and Materials, vol. 72 of Optical Science (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2000).

M. C. Gupta and J. Ballato, The Handbook of Photonics (CRC Press, 2007).

H. S. Nalwa, ed., Organic Electronics and Photonics, vol. 2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2008).

F. Agullo-Lopez, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Aullo-Rueda, Electrooptics: Penomena, Materials and Applications (Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 1994).

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, vol. 1 of Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Orientation of 3–4 µm thick crystalline thin film on glass after solution growth and upper-surface polishing. (b) Deposition of PVA protection layer (480 nm) and SU8 photoresist (4.8 µm). (c) UV-exposure and development of SU8 photoresist. Microscope image in Fig. 2 (a). (d) Optimized pattern transfer by RIE leads to well defined OH1 single-crystalline wires, shown in Fig. 2 (b) from the top and in Fig. 4(a) from the side.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microscope image of the developed SU8 photoresist on the protected OH1 single crystalline thin film. (b) Fabricated single crystalline OH1 wires on glass after complete removal of the resist layer by reactive-ion etching.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Etch rate of OH1 at 200 W rf-power as a function of the ratio between CF4 and O2 as etch gases. The total gas flow was 52 sccm for all measurements, whereas the chamber pressure was kept at 200 µbar. The dashed curve was added for a better visualization of the experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Cross-sectional profiles of some fabricated waveguides with different width (w=7.6, 5.4, and 3.4 µm) and height (h=3.5 µm). The pictures were taken with an optical microscope and illumination from the top. (b) Mode profile of a waveguide with dimensions w×h=3.4×3.5 µm. The out-coupled mode was imaged onto a camera using a 40×microscope objective. (c) Scattered light in a waveguide imaged with an IR-sensitive CCD camera (λ 0=980 nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scattered light intensity profile on a logarithmic scale along the guiding direction z of two waveguides with different geometry w×h (h=3.5 µm, λ 0=980 nm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

OH1 waveguide sample used for electro-optic phase modulation. The separation of the gold electrodes is 50 µm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Setup used for the measurement of electro-optic phase modulation. An interference pattern produced by a phase-modulated beam in the waveguide and a free propagating probe beam is detected by the photodiode. S: waveguide with electrodes, Pol: polarizer, BS: beam splitter, L: lens, M: mirror, A: aperture, PD: photodiode.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Electro-optic phase modulation measured in a 1.0 mm long, single-crystalline OH1 waveguide. The applied voltage (dashed) has an amplitude of 10 V and was modulated at a frequency of 1 kHz. The resulting maximized modulation δI of the light intensity (solid) can be extracted from the waveform. I max and I min represent the intensities for maximum constructive and destructive interference obtained in the given measurement, respectively.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Electric field distribution in the cross-sectional plane of the fabricated waveguide-electrode system calculated by Femlab. The field inside the waveguide is reduced compared to its surrounding due to the difference in the dielectric constant.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The calculated electric field in the optimized waveguide-electrode system is homogeneously distributed within the guiding area. The proposed electrode configuration in combination with a PVA waveguide cladding enhances the electro-optic efficiency by a factor of more than 20.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Propagation losses α for different waveguide geometries w×h and polarizations. At λ 0=632.8 nm the material absorption alone leads to a loss of 46 dB/cm and 13 dB/cm for TE- and TM-modes, respectively [28].

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured V π, exp and calculated V π, calc half-wave voltages in single crystalline waveguides of OH1 at the wavelengths λ 0=632.8 and 852 nm. The calculated values are based on a simulated electric field in the waveguide-electrode system and the bulk electrooptic coefficients r bulk=r 333(λ 0) [28].

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ( 1 n 2 ) ij = Δ ( 1 ε ) ij = r ijk E k .
r ijk = r mk = ( 0 0 r 13 0 0 r 23 0 0 r 33 0 r 42 0 r 51 0 0 0 0 0 )
Δ ϕ = π n 3 3 r 333 L λ 0 · E 3 = π V π · V ,
I = I m + I p + 2 I m I p cos ( Δ ϕ + ϕ 0 ) ,
δ I = d I d V v = Δ ϕ = 0 · δ V = 2 I m I p sin ( ϕ 0 ) π V π · δ V .
V π = π 2 δ V · Δ I δ I .

Metrics