Abstract

We theoretically demonstrated that all-angle negative refraction and imaging can be implemented by metallic nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix. When the separation between the nanowires is much smaller than the incident wavelength, these structures can be characterized as indefinite media, whose effective permittivities perpendicular and parallel to the wires are opposite in signs. Under this condition, the dispersion diagram is hyperbolic for transverse magnetic waves propagating in the nanowire system, thereby exhibiting all-angle negative refraction. Such indefinite media can operate over a broad frequency range (visible to near-infrared) far from any resonances, thus they offer an effective way to manipulate light propagation in bulk media with low losses, allowing potential applications in photonic devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electromagnetics of substances with simultaneously negative ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Zhang and Z. Liu, "Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit," Nat. Mater. 7, 435, (2008)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
  9. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 745-754 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. H. Hu and C. T. Chan, "Photonic crystals with silver nanowires as a near-infrared superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1520-1522 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
  14. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal", Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. I. Stockman, "Criterion for negative refraction with low optical losses from a fundamental principle of causality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Dolling, W. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and JosephW. Haus, "Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 15, 508-523 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system," Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).
  25. A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, "Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
  27. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, "Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit," Opt. Express 14, 8247-8256 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, "Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range," Science 315, 1699-1701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, "Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina," Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. R. Martin, "Nanomaterials: a membrane-based synthetic approach," Science 266, 1961-1966 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Sihvola, Electromagnetic Mixing Formulas and Applications, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1999).
  35. C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
  37. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons: On Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988).
  38. This is valid for kx <?? /d, where d is the average distance between wires. The cutoff is at kx <?? /d >>2??/?0.
  39. P. A. Belov, "Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 259-263 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  40. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, "Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system," Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005).
  41. T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, "Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235115 (2005).
  42. G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, "Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit," Nat. Mater. 7, 435, (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (12)

Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal", Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, "Criterion for negative refraction with low optical losses from a fundamental principle of causality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, "Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range," Science 315, 1699-1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, W. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and JosephW. Haus, "Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks," Opt. Express 15, 508-523 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, "Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit," Opt. Express 14, 8247-8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, "Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system," Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, "Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235115 (2005).

2004 (2)

X. H. Hu and C. T. Chan, "Photonic crystals with silver nanowires as a near-infrared superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1520-1522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

P. A. Belov, "Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 259-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 745-754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

1995 (1)

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, "Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina," Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

C. R. Martin, "Nanomaterials: a membrane-based synthetic approach," Science 266, 1961-1966 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electromagnetics of substances with simultaneously negative ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

Alekseyev, L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belov, P.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov, "Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 259-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M. J.

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cappeddu, M. G.

Centini, M.

Chan, C. T.

X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Hu and C. T. Chan, "Photonic crystals with silver nanowires as a near-infrared superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1520-1522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

da Costa, J. A. P.

T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, "Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235115 (2005).

D'Aguanno, G.

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, "Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range," Science 315, 1699-1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Ceglia, D.

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Dumelow, T.

T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, "Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235115 (2005).

Elser, J.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, "Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

Fan, S. H.

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.B.

X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foss, C. A.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopoulou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).

Fowler, M.

Franz, K. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freire, V. N.

T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, "Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235115 (2005).

Fu, L. W.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, K.

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, "Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina," Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H. C.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornyak, G. L.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, S. S.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X. H.

X. H. Hu and C. T. Chan, "Photonic crystals with silver nanowires as a near-infrared superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1520-1522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y. J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, "Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range," Science 315, 1699-1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikonen, P.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, Z.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 745-754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 745-754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, M.

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koltenbah, B. E. C.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Hyesog

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. C. W.

X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, W. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Zhaowei

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W. T.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 745-754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandatori, A.

Martin, C. R.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Martin, "Nanomaterials: a membrane-based synthetic approach," Science 266, 1961-1966 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, H.

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, "Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina," Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiucci, N.

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E.

Narimanov, E. E.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parimi, P. V.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system," Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 745-754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salakhutdinov, I.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, "Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

Sarychev, A.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

Schonbrun,

Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal", Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, H.

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibilia, C.

Simovski, C.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, "Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range," Science 315, 1699-1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, W. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockert, J. A.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, "Criterion for negative refraction with low optical losses from a fundamental principle of causality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Cheng

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thylen, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trendafilov, S.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S.

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system," Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electromagnetics of substances with simultaneously negative ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vodo, P.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G. P.

X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, D.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, W.

Wood, B.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system," Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).

Xiong, Yi

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Xiang

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. H. Hu and C. T. Chan, "Photonic crystals with silver nanowires as a near-infrared superlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1520-1522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal", Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and E. E. Narimanov, "Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Ikonen, C. Simovski, S. Tretyakov, P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Magnification of subwavelength field distributions at microwave frequencies using a wire medium slab operating in the canalization regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, and C. R. Martin, "Template synthesized nanoscopic gold particles: optical spectra and the effects of particle size and shape," J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963-2971 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. A. Belov, "Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 259-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nat. Mater. 7, 31-37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, "Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit," Nat. Mater. 7, 435, (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl " Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials," Nat. Mater. 6, 946-950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (6)

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, "Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system," Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006).

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, "Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, "Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235115 (2005).

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, "Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell???s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, "Criterion for negative refraction with low optical losses from a fundamental principle of causality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.B. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee and C. T. Chan, "All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (8)

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, "Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range," Science 315, 1699-1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, "Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina," Science 268, 1466-1468 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Martin, "Nanomaterials: a membrane-based synthetic approach," Science 266, 1961-1966 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electromagnetics of substances with simultaneously negative ? and ?," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Sihvola, Electromagnetic Mixing Formulas and Applications, (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1999).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons: On Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, Berlin, 1988).

This is valid for kx <?? /d, where d is the average distance between wires. The cutoff is at kx <?? /d >>2??/?0.

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, "Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system," Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic of metallic nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix. (b) Illustration of the hexagonal lattice of nanowires fabricated by an anodized alumina template. The rectangular unit cell is adopted in the finite-element simulations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective permittivities for silver nanowires embedded in an alumina matrix with two different filling ratios. (a) and (b) plot the real part of the permittivity parallel and perpendicular to the nanowire, respectively. (c) and (d) are the corresponding imaginary parts.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). The equifrequency contour of an indefinite material with ε x =4.515 and ε z =-2.530 (green hyperbola), as well as the equifrequency contour of an isotropic material (gray circle). The refracted wave vector (solid blue arrow) and Poynting vector (solid red arrow) can be determined by satisfying the causality theorem and the conservation of the tangential wave vector. While the other set of refracted wave vector (dotted blue arrow) and Poynting vector (dotted red arrow) are physically incorrect. (b) Schematic diagram of negative refraction for a TM wave, which is incident from an isotropic material to an indefinite one with ε x >0 and ε z <0. (c) Refracted angles for the wave vector (blue) and Poynting vector (red) at various incident angles. Note the Poynting vector undergoes negative refraction for all incident angles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Finite-element simulations showing negative refraction by metallic nanowire structures at 632.8nm wavelength. Figs. (a) and (c) plot the absolute value of the electric field, and Figs. (b) and (d) plot the time-averaged Poynting vector. The 3D full-wave simulations ((a) and (b)) considering the real nanowire structure agree very well with the simulation based on the effective medium approximation ((c) and (d)). In the simulations of (a) and (c), the nanowires are arranged in a hexagonal lattice as shown in Fig. 1(b), the radius of nanowires is 27.5nm, and the separation between adjacent wires is 110nm. Those parameters are kept same for simulations shown in Figs. 5-6.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). The time-averaged Poynting vector for a TM wave transmitted through a prism-shaped nanowire slab. The surface normal of the prism has a 15-degree angle with respect to the z-axis. Positive refraction takes place at the exit surface. (b). Interpretation of the refraction behavior at the exit surface based on the equifrequency contour.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Ray optics showing that an indefinite-material slab is able to form partial imaging inside and outside the slab. The source is placed 500nm in front the slab. The gray region represents a 2µm-thick indefinite slab with ε x =4.515 and ε z =-2.530. (b) The time-averaged Poynting vector in the 3D finite-element simulation. (c) Same as (b), but the realistic nanowire structure in (b) is replaced by a homogeneous indefinite material with effective permittivies calculated from the dynamical Maxwell-Garnett theory.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε = p ε m + ( 1 p ) ε d
ε = ε d + p ε d ( ε m ε d ) ε d + ( 1 p ) ( ε m ε d ) q eff
q eff = 1 2 1 3 ( 2 π λ 0 · r ) 2 2 9 ( 2 π λ 0 · r ) 3 · i
ε = ε 0 ( ε x 0 0 0 ε y 0 0 0 ε z ) .
E = E 0 e i ( k · r ω t ) ,
H = H 0 e i ( k · r ω t ) .
H = H 0 e ̂ y exp [ i ( k x x + k z z ω t ) ] ,
E = H 0 ω ε 0 ( k z ε x e ̂ x k x ε z e ̂ z ) exp [ i ( k x x + k z z ω t ) ] .
S = 1 2 E × H * = ε · k 2 ω ε 0 ε x ε z H 0 2 ·
k x 2 ε z + k z 2 ε x = ω 2 c 2 ,
S z = e ̂ z · k ε x H 0 2 2 ω ε 0 > 0 .
S x = k x ε z H 0 2 2 ω ε 0 .
θ r , k = tan 1 ( k x k z ) ,
θ r , S = tan 1 ( S x S z ) = tan 1 ( k x ε z k z ε x ) ,
ϕ = cos 1 ( k · S k · S ) = cos 1 ( ω 2 c 2 k x 2 + k z 2 ( k x ε z ) 2 + ( k z ε x ) 2 ) .

Metrics