Abstract

This paper proposes a scheme for format conversion from a distorted non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal to a high-quality return-to-zero (RZ) signal, using the nonlinearity in a coupled ring-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) on a silicon chip. In this method, a distorted NRZ signal is amplified and fed into the CROW together with an RZ pulse train. The CROW performs as a nonlinear step gate for the RZ pulse train, which outputs amplitude-equalized RZ pulses inheriting the information from the NRZ signal. Clearly, the integration of the format conversion and regeneration simplifies the system. Our simulations performed at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s verify the feasibility of our proposal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Lu, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, "All-optical format conversions from NRZ to BPSK and QPSK based on nonlinear responses in silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 15, 14275 (2007).
  10. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, "25 ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Express 16, 7693 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

2006 (4)

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, "Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 31, 341 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou and M. Lipson, "All-optical silicon modulators based on carrier injection by two-photon absorption," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and C.-S. Park, "Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop-mirror," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 834 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, G. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion form NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer", Opt. Commum. 248, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Astar, W.

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

Barry, J.

J. Yu, G. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion form NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer", Opt. Commum. 248, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

Bolten, J.

Boucher, Y. G.

Carter, G. M.

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

Chang, G.

J. Yu, G. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion form NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer", Opt. Commum. 248, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

Dumeige, Y.

Féron, P.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Först, M.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Geraghty, D. F.

Ghisa, L.

Gottheil, M.

Guo, Y.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Henschel, W.

Huang, D.

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. N. T.

Kim, Y. J.

Kurz, H.

Kwok, C. H.

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. G.

Lee, H. J.

Leng, L.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Y. Lu, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, "All-optical format conversions from NRZ to BPSK and QPSK based on nonlinear responses in silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 15, 14275 (2007).

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, "All-optical format conversions from NRZ to BPSK and QPSK based on nonlinear responses in silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 15, 14275 (2007).

Manolatou, C.

Niehusmann, J.

Park, C. S.

Park, C.-S.

Plötzing, T.

Qiu, M.

Y. Lu, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, "All-optical format conversions from NRZ to BPSK and QPSK based on nonlinear responses in silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 15, 14275 (2007).

Salem, R.

Su, Y.

Y. Lu, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, "All-optical format conversions from NRZ to BPSK and QPSK based on nonlinear responses in silicon microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 15, 14275 (2007).

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, G. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion form NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer", Opt. Commum. 248, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Sun, Q.

Tian, X.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Vörckel, A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Wang, J.

Wen, H.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, Q.

Xu, X.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, L.

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, G. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion form NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer", Opt. Commum. 248, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, and H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1985 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, and Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Commum. (1)

J. Yu, G. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion form NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer", Opt. Commum. 248, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watt, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Körtner, and H. I. Smith, "Multistage high-order microring-resonator filters with relaxed tolerances for high through-port extinction," in Proc. CLEO 1, 266 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format converter using a single-stage silicon CROW.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resonance shift increases with the increasing input pump power: (a) the pump power is zero; (b) the pump power is sufficiently small; (c) the pump power is sufficiently high; and (d) a nonlinear gate function for the probe light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) linear and (b) nonlinear effects of the 3-ring silicon CROW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

10-Gb/s regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format conversion: (a) NRZ signals after 20-km transmission without any compensation; (b), (e) RZ signal after conversion in lossless case; (c), (f) RZ signals after conversion in the presence of optical losses; (d) spectral of the input 10-GHz RZ pulse train.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

10-Gb/s regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format conversion in the presence of optical losses, where the peak pump power is about 1.1 W: (a) NRZ signals after 40-km transmission without any compensation; (b) 20%-duty-cycle, and (c) 10%-duty-cycle RZ signal after conversion.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

40-Gb/s regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format conversion: (a) NRZ signals after 40-km transmission with chromatic dispersion compensation; (b) RZ signal after conversion with the presence of optical losses.

Equations (3)

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[ a i , x b i , x ] = [ j t i σ i j 1 σ i j 1 σ i j t i σ i ]   [ a i , x ' b i , x ' ]   , x = 1 , 2 .
{ a i , 0 ' = b i + 1 , 0 exp ( α 2 L ) exp [ j k 0 L j γ 0 b i + 1 , 0 2 ] b i , 0 ' = a i + 1 , 0 exp ( α 2 L ) exp [ j k 0 L + j γ 0 a i + 1 , 0 2 e α L ] ,
{ a i , 1 ' = b i + 1 , 1 exp ( α 2 L ) exp [ j k 1 L j 2 γ 1 b i + 1 , 0 2 ] b i , 1 ' = a i + 1 , 1 exp ( α 2 L ) exp [ j k 1 L + j 2 γ 1 a i + 1 , 0 2 e α L ] ,

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