Abstract

A tunable-focus liquid lens using dielectrophoretic effect is demonstrated. When a voltage is applied to a dielectric liquid droplet, the generated electric field inside the droplet is inhomogeneous. As a result, the liquid bears a dielectric force and its surface profile can be reshaped which causes the focal length to change. Adaptive lenses with different apertures are fabricated and their performances evaluated. In comparison to the patterned-electrode liquid lenses, our lens uses continuous electrode which is much simpler for fabrication.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. RenY. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T.  Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Wang, H. Dai, and K Xu, "Tunable reflective lens array based on liquid crystal on silicon," Opt. Express 13, 352-357 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani, "Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays," Opt. Lett. 16, 532-534 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network," Opt. Express 11, 2370-2378 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 5931-5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, "Dielectrically actuated liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 7140-7145 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid microlens array using dielectrophoretic effect," Opt. Express 16, 2646-2652 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Ren, D. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage," Opt. Express 15, 11328 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Viley, New York, 1975), 2nd ed.

2008

2007

2006

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. RenY. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T.  Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network," Opt. Express 11, 2370-2378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

Aizenberg, J.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, D.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Chronis, N.

Dabrowski, R.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

Fan, Y. H.

H. RenY. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T.  Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D.

Gauza, S.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. RenY. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T.  Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haddock, J. N.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K. S.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honma, M.

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. S.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janarthanan, N.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

Kippelen, B.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Li, G.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Mach, P.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nose, T.

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rastani, K.

Ren, H.

Sato, S.

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seed, A. J.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharonov, A.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varahramtan, K.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vovelle, L.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wen, C. H.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S. T.

H. RenY. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T.  Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K

Yang, S.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. RenY. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T.  Wu, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramtan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, "High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 42, 3463-3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, "Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7634-7638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Polymer

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Viley, New York, 1975), 2nd ed.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (1003 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Side-view structure of the lens cell and (b) definition of the involved parameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The 2D image of the lens cell at the position of (a) surface focus, (b) inside focus, and (c) outside focus.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Imaging properties of two liquid lenses at (a) V=0, (b) V=60 Vrms, and (c) refocused state.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured voltage-dependent focal length of a dielectric liquid lens with 230 µm diameter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two different liquid lenses driven from focus (defocused) state to defocused (focus) states. (Media 1).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Key parameters of liquid-1 and liquid-2. The unit of surface tension is mN/m and density is g/cm3.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E t = V ε 2 t ε 2 + d t ε 1 + d p ε p ,
E t 0 = V ε 1 d ε 2
E t d = V d .
F = ε 0 2 ( ε 1 ε 2 ) ( E E ) ,
f 3 = 3 V d π ( 1 cos θ ) ( 2 cos 2 θ cos θ ) ( n 2 n 1 ) 3 ,

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