Abstract

A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Bett et al., "High-concentration PV using III-V solar cells," in Proceedings of IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006)
  2. W. Keogh and A. Cuevas, "Simple Flashlamp I-V Testing of Solar Cells," in Proceedings of IEEE 26th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1997).
  3. I. Antón, R. Solar, G. Sala, and D. Pachón, "IV Testing of Concentration Modules and Cells with Non-Uniform Light Patterns," Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2001), pp. 611-614.
  4. J. Kiehl, K. Emery, and A. Andreas, "Testing Concentrator Cells: Spectral Considerations of a Flash Lamp System," Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2004).
  5. C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, "Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing," Solar Energy  73, 443-467 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. ISO 15387:2005 Space systems -- Single-junction solar cells -- Measurements and calibration procedures (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005).
  7. ASTM E 2527 - 06 Standard Test Method for Rating Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, United States, 2006).

2002 (1)

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, "Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing," Solar Energy  73, 443-467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, "Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing," Solar Energy  73, 443-467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, "Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing," Solar Energy  73, 443-467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, D.

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, "Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing," Solar Energy  73, 443-467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy (1)

C. A. Gueymard, D. Myers, and K. Emery, "Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing," Solar Energy  73, 443-467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

ISO 15387:2005 Space systems -- Single-junction solar cells -- Measurements and calibration procedures (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005).

ASTM E 2527 - 06 Standard Test Method for Rating Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, United States, 2006).

A. Bett et al., "High-concentration PV using III-V solar cells," in Proceedings of IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2006)

W. Keogh and A. Cuevas, "Simple Flashlamp I-V Testing of Solar Cells," in Proceedings of IEEE 26th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1997).

I. Antón, R. Solar, G. Sala, and D. Pachón, "IV Testing of Concentration Modules and Cells with Non-Uniform Light Patterns," Proceedings of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2001), pp. 611-614.

J. Kiehl, K. Emery, and A. Andreas, "Testing Concentrator Cells: Spectral Considerations of a Flash Lamp System," Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2004).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Angular size of the source seen by the receiver at the edge: α=arctan[(H/2+ϕ/2)/L]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The angular size of the source is that of the lamp seen from the collimator mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Collimator mirror manufactured at JUPASA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Elements of the multi-flash CPV solar simulator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Solar simulator irradiance can be varied using the triggering voltage and the time delay from the peak.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Irradiance uniformity map for a 90 × 70 cm square of the receiver plane.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Light source seen from the receiver plane photographed with a CCD camera.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Solar simulator spectrum for a specific triggering voltage at peak power compared to AM1.5D standard spectrum. Also, spectral responses from top and middle junctions in a typical triple-junction cell are shown.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral similarity through current ratios of top and middle component cells (GaInP, GaInAs) under solar simulator and reference AM1.5D conditions. It is given as a function of time, during the flash pulse decay. Cells are Spectrolab ‘isotypes’. Available irradiance for top and middle cells is also plotted, which is calculated as the ratio between the short-circuit currents under simulator and calibration conditions at 1000 W/m2 (assuming that the short-circuit current is linear with irradiance).

Equations (2)

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I L , subcell = λ SR subcell ( λ ) E ( λ ) d λ
Spectral Similarity Middle Top = I sc , Top Simulator / I sc , Top AM 1.5 D I sc , Middle Simulator / I sc , Middle AM 1.5 D

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