Abstract

We report a nano-electromechanical optoelectronic (NEMO) tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-thin (145 nm) electrostatically actuated high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) designed to strongly reflect TE-polarized light. Single mode emission (SMSR >45 dB) and continuous wavelength tuning (~4 nm) were obtained at room temperature with output power up to 2 mW under continuous wave (CW) operation. A record short wavelength tuning time (~90 ns) is experimentally demonstrated, which is >100 times faster than previously reported DBR-based tunable VCSELs and a 1.7 times improvement over the previously reported TM polarized NEMO tunable VCSELs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, B. Kogel, S. Jatta, H. Halbritter, and P. Meissner, "CO and CO2 spectroscopy using a 60 nm broadband tunable MEMS-VCSEL at 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 31, 3170-3172 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Micromechanical tunable optical filters: general design rules for wavelengths from near-IR up to 10µm," Sens. Actuators A 119, 57-62 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating," Nature Photon. 1, 119-122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nature Photon. 2, 180-184 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Amann, "Semiconductor lasers: Tuning triumph," Nature Photon. 2, 134-135 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL," Opt. Express 15, 1222-1227 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Gustavsson, �?. Haglund, J. Vukuši�?, J. Bengtsson, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, "Efficient and individually controllable mechanisms for mode and polarization selection in VCSELs, based on a common, localized, sub-wavelength surface grating," Opt. Express 13, 6626-6634 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Large fabrication tolerance for VCSELs using high-contrast grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 434-436 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, "Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811-818 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nature Photon. 2, 180-184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Amann, "Semiconductor lasers: Tuning triumph," Nature Photon. 2, 134-135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Large fabrication tolerance for VCSELs using high-contrast grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 434-436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL," Opt. Express 15, 1222-1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating," Nature Photon. 1, 119-122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, B. Kogel, S. Jatta, H. Halbritter, and P. Meissner, "CO and CO2 spectroscopy using a 60 nm broadband tunable MEMS-VCSEL at 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 31, 3170-3172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Amann, M.

M. Amann, "Semiconductor lasers: Tuning triumph," Nature Photon. 2, 134-135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benbakir, B.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

Boehm, G.

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boucart, J.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boutami, S.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nature Photon. 2, 180-184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Large fabrication tolerance for VCSELs using high-contrast grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 434-436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating," Nature Photon. 1, 119-122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL," Opt. Express 15, 1222-1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Micromechanical tunable optical filters: general design rules for wavelengths from near-IR up to 10µm," Sens. Actuators A 119, 57-62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. B.

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Decai, S.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dongxu, Z.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foley, J. E.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gustavsson, J.

Haglund, ??.

Halbritter, H.

M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, B. Kogel, S. Jatta, H. Halbritter, and P. Meissner, "CO and CO2 spectroscopy using a 60 nm broadband tunable MEMS-VCSEL at 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 31, 3170-3172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C. Y.

Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Large fabrication tolerance for VCSELs using high-contrast grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 434-436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nature Photon. 2, 180-184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating," Nature Photon. 1, 119-122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL," Opt. Express 15, 1222-1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Micromechanical tunable optical filters: general design rules for wavelengths from near-IR up to 10µm," Sens. Actuators A 119, 57-62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jatta, S.

Jedrasik, P.

Kageyama, T.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kner, P.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kogel, B.

Lackner, M.

Larsson, A.

Leclercq, J. L.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. S.

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Micromechanical tunable optical filters: general design rules for wavelengths from near-IR up to 10µm," Sens. Actuators A 119, 57-62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maute, M.

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, B. Kogel, S. Jatta, H. Halbritter, and P. Meissner, "CO and CO2 spectroscopy using a 60 nm broadband tunable MEMS-VCSEL at 1.55µm," Opt. Lett. 31, 3170-3172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Nabiev, R. F.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, R.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pesala, B.

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pisano, A. P.

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riemenschneider, F.

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzott, M.

Vail, E. C.

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vukuši??, J.

Winter, F.

Wu, M. S.

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Yuen, W.

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Yunfei, D.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nature Photon. 2, 180-184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Large fabrication tolerance for VCSELs using high-contrast grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 434-436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating," Nature Photon. 1, 119-122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL," Opt. Express 15, 1222-1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. S. Wu, E. C. Vail, G. S. Li, W. Yuen, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable Micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 1671-1672 (1995)
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. E. Foley, R. Beatty, P. Li, and B. T. Cunningham, "Ultra-sensitive immunoassay using VCSEL detection system," Electron. Lett. 40, 649-651 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Large fabrication tolerance for VCSELs using high-contrast grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 434-436 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 518-520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Decai, W. Fan, P. Kner, J. Boucart, T. Kageyama, Z. Dongxu, R. Pathak, R. F. Nabiev, and W. Yuen, "Long wavelength-tunable VCSELs with optimized MEMS bridge tuning structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 714-716 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, K. B. Cheng, Y. Zhou, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and A. P. Pisano, "Demonstration of piezoelectric actuated GaAs-based MEMS tunable VCSEL," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1197-1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature Photon. (3)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nature Photon. 2, 180-184 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Amann, "Semiconductor lasers: Tuning triumph," Nature Photon. 2, 134-135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating," Nature Photon. 1, 119-122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Micromechanical tunable optical filters: general design rules for wavelengths from near-IR up to 10µm," Sens. Actuators A 119, 57-62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). SEM image of a fabricated TM-HCG with a grating thickness of 235 nm. (b) SEM image of a fabricated TE-HCG with a grating thickness of 145 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated reflectivity of a TM-HCG (in blue) and a TE-HCG (in red), with TM and TE incident surface-normal plane wave, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of a fabricated NEMO tunable VCSEL with a suspended TE-HCG in the center of the mesa. The inset is a zoomed-in tilted view of the movable TE-HCG structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured continuous-wave static characteristics of a TE-HCG based NEMO tunable VCSEL without applying external bias voltage. (a) Measured light-intensity versus bias (LI) and electrical voltage versus current (IV) characteristics. (b) Measured emission spectrum of the device biased at 4 times the threshold current.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured peak spectral intensity vs. polarizer angle for a NEMO with TM-HCG (in blue) and TE-HCG (in red).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured wavelength tuning spectra of a NEMO VCSEL with TE-HCG at different applied tuning voltages. (b) Normalized tuning frequency response of a TE NEMO VCSEL with HCG mirror of 10×10 µm2.

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