Abstract

We present the first report of two-photon induced plastic surface deformation in solid polymer films. Exposure of azo polymer films, which absorb in the visible range (λmax=480 nm), to intense 920 nm irradiation leads to polarization dependent photofluidic polymer nanomovement caused by photoselective two-photon trans ↔ cis isomerization. The deformations were induced by a gradient of light intensity; and strongly depend on the wavelength and the polarization direction of the incident laser light and the position of the focused spot with respect to the plane of the polymer film.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

D. Gindre, I. Ka, A. Boeglin, A. Fort, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "Image storage through gray-scale encoding of second harmonic signals in azo-dye copolymers" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 094103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Gindre, A. Boeglin, G. Taupier, O. Crégut, J.-P. Vola, A. Barsella, L. Mager, A. Fort, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "Toward submicrometer optical storage through controlled molecular disorder in azo-dye copolymer films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 532-537 (2007).

C. R. Mendonça, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos SantosJr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. OliveiraJr, "Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13," Opt. Commun. 273, 435-440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Dubrovkin, Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskiy, "Nonlinear induced polarization dependent scattering in solid state azo-dye films," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 275-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "The anisotropic nanomovement of azo-polymers," Opt. Express 91, 652-659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobatake, S. Takami, H. Muto, T. Ishikawa, and M. Irie, "Rapid and reversible shape changes of molecular crystals on photoirradiation," Nature 446, 778-781 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (10)

Y. Gilbert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, and L. Novotny, "Longitudinal anisotropy of the photoinduced molecular migration in azobenzene polymer films," Opt. Lett. 31, 613-615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Grosjean and D Courjon, "Photopolymers as vectorial sensors of the electric field," Opt. Express 14, 2203-2210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Singer, T. A. Nieminen, U. J. Gibson, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Orientation of optically trapped nonspherical birefringent particles," Phys. Rev. E 73, 021911 (2006).

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskii, "Optical orientation of azo dye molecules in a thin solid film upon nonlinear excitation by femtosecond laser pulses," Quantum Electron. 36, 1056-1057 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gindre, A. Boeglin, A. Fort, L. Mager, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "Rewritable optical data storage in azobenzene copolymers" Opt. Express 14, 9896-9901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164718 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 868-873 (2006).

S. Bian, D. Robinson, and M. Kuzyk, "Optically activated cantilever using photomechanical effects in dye-doped polymer fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 697-708 (2006).

2005 (8)

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, "Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin films of azo polymers: The photomechanical effect," Macromolecules 38, 10566-10570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Lai, W. L. Wang, J. H. Lin, and C. C. Hsu, "Optical manipulation of third-harmonic generation via either one- or two-photon excitation in diarylethene-polymethylmethacrylate polymer thin films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 569-572 (2005).

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait, and P. J. Sadler, "Two-Photon-Induced Photoisomerization of an Azo Dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gilbert, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, A. Bouhelier, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photoresponsive polymers for topographic simulation of the optical near-field of a nanometer sized gold tip in a highly focused laser beam," Opt. Express 13, 3619-3624 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, "From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field," Nat. Mater. 4, 699-703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, N. Ji, Z. Lin, and S. T. Chui, "Radiation torque on a birefringent sphere caused by an electromagnetic wave," Phys. Rev. E 72, 056610 (2005).

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, "Femto- and nanosecond laser treatment of doped polymethylmethacrylate," Appl. Sur. Sci. 247, 406-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, "Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 190801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, "Chromophore Orientations upon Irradiation in Gratings Inscribed on Azo-Dye Polymer Films: A Combined AFM and Confocal Raman Microscopic Study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6949-6960 (2004).

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, "Isomeric orientation by two-photon excitation: a theoretical study," Opt. Commun. 229, 291-303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, K. S. Lin, V. M. Churikov, Y. Z. Su, J. T. Lin, T. -H. Huang, and C. C. Hsu, "Two-photon absorption properties of star-shaped molecules containing peripheral diarylthienylamines," Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 433-439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, "Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer," Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, F. H�??Dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput G. Lampel, J-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Nedelchev, A. S. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage," Appl. Opt. 42, 5918-5927 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Koyayashi, C. Egami and Y. Kawata, "Optical Storage Media with Dye-Doped Minute Spheres on Polymer Films," Opt. Rev. 10, 262-266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Iwata, K. Kobayashi, A. Sasaki, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, M. Tuchimori and O. Watanabe, "Nanometre-scale modification of a urethane-urea copolymer film using local field enhancement at an apex of a metal coated probe," Nanotechnology 13, 138-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, "Pure Photoorientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers," J. Phys. Chem. B. 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Kawata, H. -B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Munakata, K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "A new holographic recording material and its diffraction efficiency increase effect: the use of photoinduced surface deformation in azo-polymer film," Opt. Commun. 191, 15-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces," Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Lin, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar and S. Tripathy, "Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498-4508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Mean-field Theory of Photoinduced Formation of Surface Reliefs in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89-92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, P. Prêtre, A. Knoesen, W. Volksen, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, "Correlation between polymer architecture and sub-glass-transition-temperature light-induced molecular movement in azo-polyimide polymers: influence on linear and second- and third-order nonlinear optical processes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 401-413 (1998).

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, "light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713-1724 (1996).

S. Davy and M. Spajer, "Near filed optics: Snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306-3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, "Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses," Science 270, 974-975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted Poling of Azo Dye Doped Polymeric Films at Room Temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).

1986 (1)

Andrade, A. A.

C. R. Mendonça, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos SantosJr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. OliveiraJr, "Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13," Opt. Commun. 273, 435-440 (2007).
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Ashkin, A.

Aust, E. F.

Bachelot, R.

Y. Gilbert, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, and L. Novotny, "Longitudinal anisotropy of the photoinduced molecular migration in azobenzene polymer films," Opt. Lett. 31, 613-615 (2006).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gilbert, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, A. Bouhelier, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photoresponsive polymers for topographic simulation of the optical near-field of a nanometer sized gold tip in a highly focused laser beam," Opt. Express 13, 3619-3624 (2005).
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R. Bachelot, F. H�??Dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput G. Lampel, J-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
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Balasubramanian, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Lin, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar and S. Tripathy, "Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498-4508 (1999).
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Barrett, C. J.

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, "Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin films of azo polymers: The photomechanical effect," Macromolecules 38, 10566-10570 (2005).
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Barsella, A.

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Belfield, K. D.

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
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K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
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Bian, S.

S. Bian, D. Robinson, and M. Kuzyk, "Optically activated cantilever using photomechanical effects in dye-doped polymer fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 697-708 (2006).

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Lin, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar and S. Tripathy, "Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498-4508 (1999).
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Billot, L.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Boeglin, A.

Bondar, M. V.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

Brehmer, L.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, "From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field," Nat. Mater. 4, 699-703 (2005).
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Bruneel, J. L.

F. L. Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, "Chromophore Orientations upon Irradiation in Gratings Inscribed on Azo-Dye Polymer Films: A Combined AFM and Confocal Raman Microscopic Study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6949-6960 (2004).

Buffeteau, T.

F. L. Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, "Chromophore Orientations upon Irradiation in Gratings Inscribed on Azo-Dye Polymer Films: A Combined AFM and Confocal Raman Microscopic Study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6949-6960 (2004).

Chang, S-H

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charra, F.

Chon, J. W. M.

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
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Chu, S.

Chui, S. T.

M. Liu, N. Ji, Z. Lin, and S. T. Chui, "Radiation torque on a birefringent sphere caused by an electromagnetic wave," Phys. Rev. E 72, 056610 (2005).

Churikov, V. M.

S. Liu, K. S. Lin, V. M. Churikov, Y. Z. Su, J. T. Lin, T. -H. Huang, and C. C. Hsu, "Two-photon absorption properties of star-shaped molecules containing peripheral diarylthienylamines," Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 433-439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corredor, C. C.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D

Crégut, O.

Davy, S.

S. Davy and M. Spajer, "Near filed optics: Snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306-3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Boni, L.

C. R. Mendonça, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos SantosJr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. OliveiraJr, "Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13," Opt. Commun. 273, 435-440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorkenoo, K. D.

dos Santos, D. S.

C. R. Mendonça, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos SantosJr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. OliveiraJr, "Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13," Opt. Commun. 273, 435-440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dubrovkin, A. M.

A. M. Dubrovkin, Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskiy, "Nonlinear induced polarization dependent scattering in solid state azo-dye films," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 275-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted Poling of Azo Dye Doped Polymeric Films at Room Temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).

Dziedzic, J. M.

Egami, C.

N. Koyayashi, C. Egami and Y. Kawata, "Optical Storage Media with Dye-Doped Minute Spheres on Polymer Films," Opt. Rev. 10, 262-266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Iwata, K. Kobayashi, A. Sasaki, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, M. Tuchimori and O. Watanabe, "Nanometre-scale modification of a urethane-urea copolymer film using local field enhancement at an apex of a metal coated probe," Nanotechnology 13, 138-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. A.

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fort, A.

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

W. Singer, T. A. Nieminen, U. J. Gibson, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Orientation of optically trapped nonspherical birefringent particles," Phys. Rev. E 73, 021911 (2006).

Giersig, M.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, "From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field," Nat. Mater. 4, 699-703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, Y.

Gindre, D.

Grand, J.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosjean, T.

Gu, M.

X. Li, J. W. M. Chon, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Two-photon energy transfer enhanced three-dimensional optical memory in quantum-dot and azo-dye doped polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harada, K.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "A new holographic recording material and its diffraction efficiency increase effect: the use of photoinduced surface deformation in azo-polymer film," Opt. Commun. 191, 15-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

W. Singer, T. A. Nieminen, U. J. Gibson, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Orientation of optically trapped nonspherical birefringent particles," Phys. Rev. E 73, 021911 (2006).

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, F. E.

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hisakuni, H.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, "Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses," Science 270, 974-975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Mean-field Theory of Photoinduced Formation of Surface Reliefs in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89-92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. C.

N. D. Lai, W. L. Wang, J. H. Lin, and C. C. Hsu, "Optical manipulation of third-harmonic generation via either one- or two-photon excitation in diarylethene-polymethylmethacrylate polymer thin films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 569-572 (2005).

S. Liu, K. S. Lin, V. M. Churikov, Y. Z. Su, J. T. Lin, T. -H. Huang, and C. C. Hsu, "Two-photon absorption properties of star-shaped molecules containing peripheral diarylthienylamines," Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 433-439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. -H.

S. Liu, K. S. Lin, V. M. Churikov, Y. Z. Su, J. T. Lin, T. -H. Huang, and C. C. Hsu, "Two-photon absorption properties of star-shaped molecules containing peripheral diarylthienylamines," Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 433-439 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, C.

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvilsted, S.

Idiart, E.

Irie, M.

S. Kobatake, S. Takami, H. Muto, T. Ishikawa, and M. Irie, "Rapid and reversible shape changes of molecular crystals on photoirradiation," Nature 446, 778-781 (2007).
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Ishikawa, T.

S. Kobatake, S. Takami, H. Muto, T. Ishikawa, and M. Irie, "Rapid and reversible shape changes of molecular crystals on photoirradiation," Nature 446, 778-781 (2007).
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Ishitobi, H.

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "The anisotropic nanomovement of azo-polymers," Opt. Express 91, 652-659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164718 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 868-873 (2006).

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, "Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer," Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "A new holographic recording material and its diffraction efficiency increase effect: the use of photoinduced surface deformation in azo-polymer film," Opt. Commun. 191, 15-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, F.

F. Iwata, K. Kobayashi, A. Sasaki, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, M. Tuchimori and O. Watanabe, "Nanometre-scale modification of a urethane-urea copolymer film using local field enhancement at an apex of a metal coated probe," Nanotechnology 13, 138-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ji, N.

M. Liu, N. Ji, Z. Lin, and S. T. Chui, "Radiation torque on a birefringent sphere caused by an electromagnetic wave," Phys. Rev. E 72, 056610 (2005).

Johansen, P. M.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Mean-field Theory of Photoinduced Formation of Surface Reliefs in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89-92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait, and P. J. Sadler, "Two-Photon-Induced Photoisomerization of an Azo Dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

A. M. Dubrovkin, Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskiy, "Nonlinear induced polarization dependent scattering in solid state azo-dye films," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 275-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskii, "Optical orientation of azo dye molecules in a thin solid film upon nonlinear excitation by femtosecond laser pulses," Quantum Electron. 36, 1056-1057 (2006).
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S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces," Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
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D. Gindre, I. Ka, A. Boeglin, A. Fort, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "Image storage through gray-scale encoding of second harmonic signals in azo-dye copolymers" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 094103 (2007).
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Kachkovsky, O. D.

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

Karageorgiev, P.

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, "From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field," Nat. Mater. 4, 699-703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kautek, W.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, "Femto- and nanosecond laser treatment of doped polymethylmethacrylate," Appl. Sur. Sci. 247, 406-411 (2005).
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Kawata, S.

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "The anisotropic nanomovement of azo-polymers," Opt. Express 91, 652-659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 868-873 (2006).

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164718 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, "Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer," Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait, and P. J. Sadler, "Two-Photon-Induced Photoisomerization of an Azo Dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. -B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takami, S.

S. Kobatake, S. Takami, H. Muto, T. Ishikawa, and M. Irie, "Rapid and reversible shape changes of molecular crystals on photoirradiation," Nature 446, 778-781 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, M.

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "The anisotropic nanomovement of azo-polymers," Opt. Express 91, 652-659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, "Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses," Science 270, 974-975 (1995).
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Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. -B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanchak, O. M.

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, "Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin films of azo polymers: The photomechanical effect," Macromolecules 38, 10566-10570 (2005).
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Taupier, G.

Tripathy, S.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Lin, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar and S. Tripathy, "Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498-4508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tuchimori, M.

F. Iwata, K. Kobayashi, A. Sasaki, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, M. Tuchimori and O. Watanabe, "Nanometre-scale modification of a urethane-urea copolymer film using local field enhancement at an apex of a metal coated probe," Nanotechnology 13, 138-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Umegaki, S.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "A new holographic recording material and its diffraction efficiency increase effect: the use of photoinduced surface deformation in azo-polymer film," Opt. Commun. 191, 15-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urech, L.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, "Femto- and nanosecond laser treatment of doped polymethylmethacrylate," Appl. Sur. Sci. 247, 406-411 (2005).
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Vial, A.

Y. Gilbert, R. Bachelot, A. Vial, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, A. Bouhelier, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photoresponsive polymers for topographic simulation of the optical near-field of a nanometer sized gold tip in a highly focused laser beam," Opt. Express 13, 3619-3624 (2005).
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C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
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Volksen, W.

Wakaki, R.

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces," Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
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Wang, M. D.

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, "Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 190801 (2004).
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Wang, W. L.

N. D. Lai, W. L. Wang, J. H. Lin, and C. C. Hsu, "Optical manipulation of third-harmonic generation via either one- or two-photon excitation in diarylethene-polymethylmethacrylate polymer thin films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 569-572 (2005).

Watanabe, O.

F. Iwata, K. Kobayashi, A. Sasaki, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, M. Tuchimori and O. Watanabe, "Nanometre-scale modification of a urethane-urea copolymer film using local field enhancement at an apex of a metal coated probe," Nanotechnology 13, 138-142 (2002).
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Williams, J. M.

S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Lin, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar and S. Tripathy, "Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498-4508 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, "Femto- and nanosecond laser treatment of doped polymethylmethacrylate," Appl. Sur. Sci. 247, 406-411 (2005).
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S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces," Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
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Yao, S.

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
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Yasumatsu, D.

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, "Pure Photoorientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers," J. Phys. Chem. B. 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

K. Munakata, K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "A new holographic recording material and its diffraction efficiency increase effect: the use of photoinduced surface deformation in azo-polymer film," Opt. Commun. 191, 15-19 (2001).
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Zilio, S. C.

C. R. Mendonça, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos SantosJr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. OliveiraJr, "Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13," Opt. Commun. 273, 435-440 (2007).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. D. Lai, W. L. Wang, J. H. Lin, and C. C. Hsu, "Optical manipulation of third-harmonic generation via either one- or two-photon excitation in diarylethene-polymethylmethacrylate polymer thin films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 569-572 (2005).

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M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
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H. Ishitobi, M. Tanabe, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Sur. Sci. (1)

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, "Femto- and nanosecond laser treatment of doped polymethylmethacrylate," Appl. Sur. Sci. 247, 406-411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. W. Magennis, F. S. Mackay, A. C. Jones, K. M. Tait, and P. J. Sadler, "Two-Photon-Induced Photoisomerization of an Azo Dye," Chem. Mater. 17, 2059-2062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Liu, K. S. Lin, V. M. Churikov, Y. Z. Su, J. T. Lin, T. -H. Huang, and C. C. Hsu, "Two-photon absorption properties of star-shaped molecules containing peripheral diarylthienylamines," Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 433-439 (2004).
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ChemPhysChem (1)

K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, C. C. Corredor, F. E. Hernandez, O. V. Przhonska, and S. Yao, "Two-Photon Photochromism of a Diarylethene Enhanced by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorenes," ChemPhysChem 7, 2514-2519 (2006).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. Bachelot, F. H�??Dhili, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, R. Fikri, P. Royer, N. Landraud, J. Peretti, F. Chaput G. Lampel, J-P. Boilot, and K. Lahlil, "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
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S. Bian, J. M. Williams, D. Y. Kim, L. Lin, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar and S. Tripathy, "Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4498-4508 (1999).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Ordering of azobenzenes by two-photon isomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164718 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Photo-orientation by multiphoton photoselection," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 23, 868-873 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

C. C. Corredor, K. D. Belfield, M. V. Bondar, O. V. Przhonska, F. E. Hernandez, and O. D. Kachkovsky, "One- and two-photon photochromism of 3,4-bis-(2,4,5-trimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)furan-2,5-dione," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 184, 177-183 (2006).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

F. L. Labarthet, J. L. Bruneel, T. Buffeteau, and C. Sourisseau, "Chromophore Orientations upon Irradiation in Gratings Inscribed on Azo-Dye Polymer Films: A Combined AFM and Confocal Raman Microscopic Study," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6949-6960 (2004).

J. Phys. Chem. B. (1)

Z. Sekkat, D. Yasumatsu, and S. Kawata, "Pure Photoorientation of azo dye in polyurethanes and quantification of orientation of spectrally overlapping isomers," J. Phys. Chem. B. 106, 12407-12417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. M. Dubrovkin, Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskiy, "Nonlinear induced polarization dependent scattering in solid state azo-dye films," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 275-278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

O. M. Tanchak and C. J. Barrett, "Light-induced reversible volume changes in thin films of azo polymers: The photomechanical effect," Macromolecules 38, 10566-10570 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Hubert, A. Rumyantseva, G. Lerondel, J. Grand, S. Kostcheev, L. Billot, A. Vial, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, S-H Chang, S. K. Gray, G. P. Wiederrecht, and G. C. Schatz, "Near-Field Photochemical Imaging of Nobel Metal Nanostructures," Nano Lett. 5, 615-619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

F. Iwata, K. Kobayashi, A. Sasaki, Y. Kawata, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, M. Tuchimori and O. Watanabe, "Nanometre-scale modification of a urethane-urea copolymer film using local field enhancement at an apex of a metal coated probe," Nanotechnology 13, 138-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. Karageorgiev, D. Neher, B. Schulz, B. Stiller, U. Pietsch, M. Giersig, and L. Brehmer, "From anisotropic photo-fluidity towards nanomanipulation in the optical near-field," Nat. Mater. 4, 699-703 (2005).
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Nature (4)

S. Kobatake, S. Takami, H. Muto, T. Ishikawa, and M. Irie, "Rapid and reversible shape changes of molecular crystals on photoirradiation," Nature 446, 778-781 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, N. Mukai, R. Wakaki, A. Yamaguchi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Reversible phase transitions in polymer gels induced by radiation forces," Nature 408, 178-181 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
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S. Kawata, H. -B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (4)

K. Munakata, K. Harada, M. Itoh, S. Umegaki, and T. Yatagai, "A new holographic recording material and its diffraction efficiency increase effect: the use of photoinduced surface deformation in azo-polymer film," Opt. Commun. 191, 15-19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Mendonça, U. M. Neves, L. De Boni, A. A. Andrade, D. S. dos SantosJr., F. J. Pavinatto, S. C. Zilio, L. Misoguti, and O. N. OliveiraJr, "Two-photon induced anisotropy in PMMA film doped with Disperse Red 13," Opt. Commun. 273, 435-440 (2007).
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Z. Sekkat, H. Ishitobi, and S. Kawata, "Two-photon isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer," Opt. Commun. 222, 269-276 (2003).
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Z. Sekkat, "Isomeric orientation by two-photon excitation: a theoretical study," Opt. Commun. 229, 291-303 (2004).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
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Opt. Rev. (1)

N. Koyayashi, C. Egami and Y. Kawata, "Optical Storage Media with Dye-Doped Minute Spheres on Polymer Films," Opt. Rev. 10, 262-266 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. Liu, N. Ji, Z. Lin, and S. T. Chui, "Radiation torque on a birefringent sphere caused by an electromagnetic wave," Phys. Rev. E 72, 056610 (2005).

W. Singer, T. A. Nieminen, U. J. Gibson, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Orientation of optically trapped nonspherical birefringent particles," Phys. Rev. E 73, 021911 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, "Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 190801 (2004).
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T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, and P. S. Ramanujam, "Mean-field Theory of Photoinduced Formation of Surface Reliefs in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89-92 (1998).
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Y. Jung, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, and N. M. Nagorskii, "Optical orientation of azo dye molecules in a thin solid film upon nonlinear excitation by femtosecond laser pulses," Quantum Electron. 36, 1056-1057 (2006).
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Science (1)

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, "Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses," Science 270, 974-975 (1995).
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Other (1)

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, ed., Photoreactive Organic Thin Films, (Academic Press, USA, 2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of the deformation induced at 920 nm light when Z-position of the focused laser spot is +2 µm. The polarization direction is indicated by the arrow. The line plots (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to light polarization are shown. The positions of the each plot correspond to the directions that are between the arrows indicated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Upper row) AFM images of the surface deformation induced at 780 nm light by changing the Z-position of the focused laser spot. The Z-position was varied from -5 µm to +5 µm with an interval of 1 µm. Only images at +2 µm, 0 µm, and -1 µm are shown. The values inside each figure represent the Z-position of the focus (unit is µm). The polarization direction is indicated by the arrow. (Lower row) Line plot of the surface deformation at Z =+2 µm. The position of the plot corresponds to the directions that are between the arrows indicated.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AFM images of the surface deformation induced at 920 nm light by changing the Z-position of the focused laser spot. The Z-position was varied from -5 µm to +5 µm with an interval of 1 µm. The values inside each figure represent the Z-position of the focus (unit is µm). The polarization direction is indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Left column) Line plots of the surface deformations at (a) Z=+2 µm and (b) Z=-2 µm. The positions of the each plot correspond to the directions that are between the arrows indicated in Fig. 4. (Right column) Schematics describing the relationship between the Z-position of the focus and the film surface.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated field distributions of 4th power of electric field components created by a focused linearly polarized laser beam in the presence of the interface between air (n=1.0) and polymer (n=1.5). The distributions were calculated in a XY in-plane which is located at 5 nm below the interface. The figure shows the field distributions when the Z-position of the focus is +2 µm. Each component of the electric fields of (a) Ex, (b) Ey, and (c) Ez are shown. The polarization direction is X, and Z is perpendicular to the film surface, and Y is perpendicular to both X and Z.

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