Abstract

Differential group delay (DGD) experienced by the optical signal in in-service terrestrial optical fiber systems has been monitored for the first time without the requirement of looping-back, in which the live traffic carried in the fiber was used as the probing signal. The relationship between the measured DGD using this technique and the actual fiber PMD parameter is formulated and verified by field experiments.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. L. Heffner, "Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques and how to avoid the pitfalls," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 84-105 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, and J. Evankow, "Estimation of eye penalty and PMD from frequency-resolved in-situ SOP measurements," Proc. 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (Piscataway, 2004), pp. 88- 89.
  5. S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561-1563 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P. A. Andrekson, "Long-Term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, and R. M. Jopson, "Polarization-mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I. P. Kaminov and T. Li, Eds. (Academic, New York, 2002).
  10. G. Bosco, B. E. Olsson, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Pulsewidth distortion monitoring in a 40-Gb/s optical system affected by PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 307-309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, "PMD impact on optical systems: Single- and multichannel effects," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 123-140 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Li and A. Yariv, "Solutions to the dynamical equation of polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1821-1827 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Brodsky, and M. Boroditsky, "A Simple Analytical Model for PMD Temporal Evolution," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWJ4.

2007 (1)

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561-1563 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques and how to avoid the pitfalls," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 84-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, "PMD impact on optical systems: Single- and multichannel effects," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 123-140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Bosco, B. E. Olsson, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Pulsewidth distortion monitoring in a 40-Gb/s optical system affected by PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 307-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. Li and A. Yariv, "Solutions to the dynamical equation of polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1821-1827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P. A. Andrekson, "Long-Term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adany, P.

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Antonelli, C.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

G. Bosco, B. E. Olsson, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Pulsewidth distortion monitoring in a 40-Gb/s optical system affected by PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 307-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, B. E. Olsson, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Pulsewidth distortion monitoring in a 40-Gb/s optical system affected by PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 307-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brentel, J.

Brodsky, M.

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cornick, K.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duser, M.

J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elbers, J. P.

J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, B.

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561-1563 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glingener, C.

J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B.

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B. L.

B. L. Heffner, "Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561-1563 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, "PMD impact on optical systems: Single- and multichannel effects," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 123-140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P. A. Andrekson, "Long-Term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and A. Yariv, "Solutions to the dynamical equation of polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1821-1827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, B. E.

G. Bosco, B. E. Olsson, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Pulsewidth distortion monitoring in a 40-Gb/s optical system affected by PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 307-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D.

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R.

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, "PMD impact on optical systems: Single- and multichannel effects," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 123-140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. X.

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P.

P. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques and how to avoid the pitfalls," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 84-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. Li and A. Yariv, "Solutions to the dynamical equation of polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1821-1827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Hui, R. Saunders, B. Heffner, D. Richards, B. Fu, and P. Adany, "Non-blocking PMD monitoring in live optical systems," Electron. Lett. 43, 53-54 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Elbers, C. Glingener, M. Duser, and E. Voges, "Modelling of polarisation mode dispersion in singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 33, 1894-1894 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, K. Cornick, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "PMD-induced penalty statistics in fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1013-1015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, B. E. Olsson, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Pulsewidth distortion monitoring in a 40-Gb/s optical system affected by PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 307-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, "Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1753-1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Fu and R. Hui, "Fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1561-1563 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Heffner, "Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. (2)

M. Karlsson and H. Sunnerud, "PMD impact on optical systems: Single- and multichannel effects," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 123-140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques and how to avoid the pitfalls," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 1, 84-105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

Y. Li and A. Yariv, "Solutions to the dynamical equation of polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 17, 1821-1827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, M. Brodsky, and M. Boroditsky, "A Simple Analytical Model for PMD Temporal Evolution," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWJ4.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, and J. Evankow, "Estimation of eye penalty and PMD from frequency-resolved in-situ SOP measurements," Proc. 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, (Piscataway, 2004), pp. 88- 89.

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, and R. M. Jopson, "Polarization-mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, I. P. Kaminov and T. Li, Eds. (Academic, New York, 2002).

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