Abstract

When laser-etching channels through solid targets, the etch-rate is known to decrease with increasing depth, partly because of absorption at the sides of the channel. For ultrafast-laser pulses at repetition rates >100MHz, we show that the etch-rate is also affected by optical properties of the beam: the channel acts as a waveguide, and so the pulses will decompose into dispersive normal modes. Additionally, plasma on the inner surface of the channel will cause scattering of the beam. These effects will cause a loss of spatial coherence in the pulse, which will affect the propagated intensity distribution and ultimately the etch-rate. We have characterized this effect for various foil thicknesses to determine the evolution of the beam while drilling through metal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  4. S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).
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  12. H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).
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  20. B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. E. Wynne and B. C. Stuart, "Rate dependence of short-pulse laser ablation of metals in air and vacuum," Appl. Phys. A 76, 373-378 (2003).
  22. R. S. Marjoribanks, F. W. Budnik, L. Zhao, G. Kulcsar, M. Stanier, and J. Mihaychuk, "High-contrast terawatt chirped-pulse-amplification laser that uses a 1-ps Nd:glass oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 361-363 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Dean, M. Bercx, M. Nantel, and R. Marjoribanks, "Transverse coherence measurement using a folded Michelson interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1742-1746 (2007).
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  25. Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
  26. J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
  27. C. S. Nielsen and P. Balling, "Deep drilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses: A two-stage process," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

C. S. Nielsen and P. Balling, "Deep drilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses: A two-stage process," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. R. Franklin and R. K. Thareja, "Simplified model to account for dependence of ablation parameters on temperature and phase of the ablated material," Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 293-306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. E. Wynne and B. C. Stuart, "Rate dependence of short-pulse laser ablation of metals in air and vacuum," Appl. Phys. A 76, 373-378 (2003).

2001 (3)

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, J. Tawney, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser deep hole drilling of silicate glasses in air," Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 151-164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Zheng, E. Gan, and G. C. Lim, "Investigation of laser via formation technology for the manufacturing of high density substrates," Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 355-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

1999 (3)

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

1998 (2)

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

1997 (3)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

1996 (2)

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33-37 (1995).

1993 (1)

1983 (1)

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).

1982 (1)

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).

Ashkenasi, D.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

Balling, P.

C. S. Nielsen and P. Balling, "Deep drilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses: A two-stage process," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P. S.

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

Bauer, T.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Bercx, M.

Bille, J.

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Budnik, F. W.

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

Celliers, P. M.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

Chichkov, B. N.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L.

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dean, J.

Demchuk, A.

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33-37 (1995).

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, J.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Fauchet, P. M.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).

Feit, M.

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

Fischer, J. P.

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, S. R.

S. R. Franklin and R. K. Thareja, "Simplified model to account for dependence of ablation parameters on temperature and phase of the ablated material," Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 293-306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gan, E.

H. Zheng, E. Gan, and G. C. Lim, "Investigation of laser via formation technology for the manufacturing of high density substrates," Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 355-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Götz, M. H.

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guosheng, Z.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).

Herman, P. R.

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

Horvath, C.

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

Jacobs, H.

Joslin, E. J.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

Kamlage, G.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Kim, B.-M.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Komashko, A. M.

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

Korte, R.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Kulcsar, G.

Kurtz, R.

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lapczyna, M.

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

Lim, G. C.

H. Zheng, E. Gan, and G. C. Lim, "Investigation of laser via formation technology for the manufacturing of high density substrates," Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 355-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loesel, F.

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

Loesel, F. H.

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marjoribanks, R.

Marjoribanks, R. S.

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

R. S. Marjoribanks, F. W. Budnik, L. Zhao, G. Kulcsar, M. Stanier, and J. Mihaychuk, "High-contrast terawatt chirped-pulse-amplification laser that uses a 1-ps Nd:glass oscillator," Opt. Lett. 18, 361-363 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihaychuk, J.

Momma, C.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

Neev, J.

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C. S.

C. S. Nielsen and P. Balling, "Deep drilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses: A two-stage process," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Perry, M.

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).

Preuss, S.

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33-37 (1995).

Pronko, P. P.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

Richardson, K.

L. Shah, J. Tawney, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser deep hole drilling of silicate glasses in air," Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 151-164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

L. Shah, J. Tawney, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser deep hole drilling of silicate glasses in air," Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 151-164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

Rubenchik, A.

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

Shah, L.

L. Shah, J. Tawney, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser deep hole drilling of silicate glasses in air," Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 151-164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).

Silva, L. B. D.

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).

Stanier, M.

Stuart, B.

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

A. E. Wynne and B. C. Stuart, "Rate dependence of short-pulse laser ablation of metals in air and vacuum," Appl. Phys. A 76, 373-378 (2003).

Stuke, M.

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33-37 (1995).

Suhm, N.

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. W.

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

Tawney, J.

L. Shah, J. Tawney, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser deep hole drilling of silicate glasses in air," Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 151-164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thareja, R. K.

S. R. Franklin and R. K. Thareja, "Simplified model to account for dependence of ablation parameters on temperature and phase of the ablated material," Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 293-306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).

VanRompay, P. A.

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

Varel, H.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

von Alvensleben, F.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Wähmer, M.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

Wellegehausen, B.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tünnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716-2722 (1997).

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, A. E.

A. E. Wynne and B. C. Stuart, "Rate dependence of short-pulse laser ablation of metals in air and vacuum," Appl. Phys. A 76, 373-378 (2003).

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).

Zhao, L.

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, E. Gan, and G. C. Lim, "Investigation of laser via formation technology for the manufacturing of high density substrates," Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 355-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Eng. Mat. (1)

S. Nolte, G. Kamlage, R. Korte, T. Bauer, T. Wagner, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, and H. Welling, "Microstructuring with femtosecond lasers," Adv. Eng. Mat. 2, 23-27 (2000).

Appl. Phys. A (5)

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, "Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals," Appl. Phys. A 61, 33-37 (1995).

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).

M. Lapczyna, K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, H. W. Tan, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Ultra high repetition rate (133 MHz) laser ablation of aluminum with 1.2-ps pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 883-886 (1999).

A. M. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Perry, and P. S. Banks, "Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 69, 95-98 (1999).

A. E. Wynne and B. C. Stuart, "Rate dependence of short-pulse laser ablation of metals in air and vacuum," Appl. Phys. A 76, 373-378 (2003).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Götz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121-128 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

L. Shah, J. Tawney, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser deep hole drilling of silicate glasses in air," Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 151-164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Franklin and R. K. Thareja, "Simplified model to account for dependence of ablation parameters on temperature and phase of the ablated material," Appl. Surf. Sci. 222, 293-306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Juhasz, F. Loesel, R. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902-910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Neev, L. Da Silva, M. Feit, M. Perry, A. Rubenchik, and B. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. S. Nielsen and P. Balling, "Deep drilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses: A two-stage process," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B.-M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. D. Silva, "Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegehausen, "Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets," Opt. Commun. 129, 134-142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

H. Zheng, E. Gan, and G. C. Lim, "Investigation of laser via formation technology for the manufacturing of high density substrates," Opt. Lasers Eng. 36, 355-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998).

Other (5)

S. Camacho-Lopez, R. Evans, C. Greenhalgh, C. Torti, J. Robertson, R. Marjoribanks, P. Herman, M. Nantel, and L. Lilge, "Single-pulse and �??pulsetrain-burst�?? (>100 MHz) effects in ultrafast laser processing of metals, glasses, and bio-tissues," in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2003 (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, USA), TOPS (2003).

P. R. Herman, A. Oettl, K. P. Chen, and R. S. Marjoribanks, "Laser micromachining of transparent fused silica with 1-ps pulses and pulse trains," in Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers, M. K. Reed and J. Neev, eds., pp. 148-155 (1999).

R. Marjoribanks, Y. Kerachian, P. Herman, S. Camacho-Lopez, and M. Nantel, "Pulsetrain �??burst�?? machining: ultrafast-laser microprocessing at ultrahigh (>100 MHz) pulse-rates," in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2001 (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, USA), TOPS Vol. 56 (2001).

D. Breitling, D. Fohl, F. Dausinger, T. Kononenko, and V. Konov, "Drilling of metals," in Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications, vol. 96 of Topics in Applied Physics, pp. 131-156 (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1995), chap. 5, pp. 252-287.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Observed etch rate, per pulse, differentially localized to different depths in aluminum foil, for 133MHz pulsetrains of 1ps pulses as described in experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Left: Unobstructed beam-waist. Middle: Free-space propagation 150 µm past the unobstructed beam-waist. Right: Same as middle, but after drilling through 150 µm Al foil instead of free-space propagation. 1ps pulses in 133MHz pulsetrain-bursts, as described in experimental setup; same scale in all images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of equivalent-target-plane (ETP), near-field (NF), and far-field (FF) imaging. The image of the exit aperture of the foil is relayed to the double-slit of Young’s apparatus and also to the CCD plane of the coherence interferometer. Incident and transmitted energy and power were also recorded.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Map of degree of coherence as a function of transverse separation (x-axis) and vertical position (y-axis). The black dots correspond to fringes, where the coherence was measured. The colours (shades) indicate the calculated degree of coherence. Degree of coherence/fringe-visibility should go to 1 for zero-value separation; light-scattering and non-parallel beam geometry account for the defect. Interpolation between data-points was done by Delaunay triangulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) Degree of coherence vs. transverse separation. Solid (black) lines: drilling through 150µm of aluminium, measured using the interferometer. Discrete points: drilling through 150µm of aluminium, measured using Young’s double-slit setup. Dashed (blue) line: free-propagated beam, measured using the interferometer. Each interferometer curve was obtained with a different single shot, and each double-slit point was obtained by averaging data over several shots.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Degree of global coherence vs. foil thickness. Each point corresponds to the mean of several measurements, and the error bars represent the standard error of the mean. The data is fit to an exponential curve.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(Color online) Normalized transmission vs. foil thickness: experimental transmission (squares) compared to values expected under Gaussian (triangles), and Gaussian Schell-model (circles) propagation. Expected values are calculated from measured coherence at each foil thickness, and include error-bars. Each set of data is fit by a curve of the form of Eq. (4), to illustrate the trends.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ s ( z ) = ρ s ( 0 ) { 1 + z 2 k 2 ρ s 4 ( 0 ) [ 1 + 4 ( σ s σ g ) 2 ] } 1 2
σ s , g = ρ s , μ ( 0 ) 2
q = σ g σ s = ρ μ ( z ) ρ s ( z )
T = 1 exp { a 2 ρ s 2 ( 0 ) [ 1 + z 2 k 2 ρ s 4 ( 0 ) ( 1 + 4 q ) ] }

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