Abstract

Elliptical core D-fiber is difficult to fusion splice to other types of fiber due to its small core and D-shaped cladding. The presented method of splicing D-fiber to PANDA fiber involves using E-fiber in a bridge splice. The E-fiber core is expanded to match the mode of the PANDA fiber. The D-fiber is then connected to the E-fiber with a low temperature splice. Total system loss for fibers spliced using this method is 0.72 dB with a polarization crosstalk of less than 25 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides, Chapter 8, (Arctech House, 1995).
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    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Ando and H. Hanafusa, “Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028–1031 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Zheng, “Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125–134 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki , “Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071–1089 (1986).
  16. “Optical Fibre: Panda Fibre,” www.fujikura.co.uk/fibre_optics/products/speciality_fibre/panda_fibre.html
  17. “KVH E-Core Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber,” www.kvh.com/pdf/EcorePMFiber_6.04.pdf
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    [Crossref]
  19. R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill, 1992).
  20. A. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing, (Springer, 2005)
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  22. T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, “Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

1999 (3)

A. Iocco, H. Limberger, R. Salathe, L. Everall, K. Chisholm, J. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217–1221 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, “Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

H. Tam, “Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1597–1599 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. Zheng, “Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125–134 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370–374 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Y. Ando and H. Hanafusa, “Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028–1031 (1992)
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1983 (2)

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Dyott and J. Bello, “Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section,” Electron. Lett. 19, 607–608 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. Tsuchiya and N. Imoto, “Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1–5 µm Wavelength Region,” Electron. Lett. 15, 476–478 (1979).
[Crossref]

Al-Raweshidy, H.

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370–374 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ando, Y.

Y. Ando and H. Hanafusa, “Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028–1031 (1992)
[Crossref]

Armenise, M.

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, “Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barbarossa, G.

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, “Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bello, J.

R. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. Handerek, “Indium-coated D-shaped fiber polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 12, 287–289 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dyott and J. Bello, “Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section,” Electron. Lett. 19, 607–608 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Chisholm, K.

Conese, T.

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, “Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cozens, J.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Dyott, R.

R. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. Handerek, “Indium-coated D-shaped fiber polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 12, 287–289 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dyott and J. Bello, “Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section,” Electron. Lett. 19, 607–608 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides, Chapter 8, (Arctech House, 1995).

Edahiro, T.

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
[Crossref]

Everall, L.

Forber, R.

Gordon, J.

Hanafusa, H.

Y. Ando and H. Hanafusa, “Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028–1031 (1992)
[Crossref]

Handerek, V.

Hawkins, A.

Imoto, N.

H. Tsuchiya and N. Imoto, “Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1–5 µm Wavelength Region,” Electron. Lett. 15, 476–478 (1979).
[Crossref]

Iocco, A.

Ipson, B.

Johnson, E.

Kato, Y.

Kawanishi, N.

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

Kvavle, J.

Limberger, H.

Lowder, T.

Monte, T. D.

Muhammad, F.

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370–374 (1996).
[Crossref]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki , “Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071–1089 (1986).

Ohzawa, L.

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

Okamoto, K.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki , “Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071–1089 (1986).

Saito, S.

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

Salathe, R.

Sasaki, Y.

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki , “Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071–1089 (1986).

Schultz, S.

Selfridge, R.

Senior, J.

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370–374 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
[Crossref]

Smith, K.

Suzuki, J.

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

Syms, R.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

Tam, H.

H. Tam, “Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1597–1599 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, H.

H. Tsuchiya and N. Imoto, “Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1–5 µm Wavelength Region,” Electron. Lett. 15, 476–478 (1979).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, W.

Williams, J.

Yablon, A.

A. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing, (Springer, 2005)

Yaguchi, S.

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

Zang, D.

Zheng, W.

W. Zheng, “Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125–134 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Dyott and J. Bello, “Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section,” Electron. Lett. 19, 607–608 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. Tam, “Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1597–1599 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Tsuchiya and N. Imoto, “Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1–5 µm Wavelength Region,” Electron. Lett. 15, 476–478 (1979).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Ando and H. Hanafusa, “Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028–1031 (1992)
[Crossref]

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, “Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523–525 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

W. Zheng, “Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125–134 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, “Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61–66 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. Iocco, H. Limberger, R. Salathe, L. Everall, K. Chisholm, J. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217–1221 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings (1)

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, “D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems,” Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370–374 (1996).
[Crossref]

Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City (1)

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, “Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use,” Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644–649 (1999).

Other (6)

R. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides, Chapter 8, (Arctech House, 1995).

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

A. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing, (Springer, 2005)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki , “Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071–1089 (1986).

“Optical Fibre: Panda Fibre,” www.fujikura.co.uk/fibre_optics/products/speciality_fibre/panda_fibre.html

“KVH E-Core Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber,” www.kvh.com/pdf/EcorePMFiber_6.04.pdf

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the cross-section of PANDA fiber (d1=7.805 µm, d2=7.954 µm, NA=0.12).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of the cross-section of D-fiber (d1=4.689 µm, d2=2.181 µm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). A cross-sectional SEM image of standard D-fiber and (b) a cross-sectional SEM image of D-fiber after a high temperature arc.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM image of the cross-section of E-fiber (d1=4.885 µm, d2=2.152 µm, NA=0.32).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illustration with cross-sectional SEM images of expanded elliptical core.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illustration of the surface tension forces and an overlay of the two cross sections showing a core separation of d=10.6 µm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A plot of the relative loss as measured through the splice joint during the splice from PANDA to E-fiber. The gap was estimated from the splice parameters, the FSM -40 PM splicer manual, and the relative loss. The plot of the arc current shows the three phases of the splice, the prefuse, the arc, and the sweep. The splice parameters for both splices are included.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). A boxplot of splice loss for PANDA to E-fiber and E-fiber to D-fiber splices. (b). A boxplot of polarization crosstalk for PANDA to E-fiber and E-fiber to D-fiber splices.

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