Abstract

Optical frequency combs generated by multiple four-wave mixing in short and highly nonlinear optical fibers are proposed for use as high precision frequency markers, calibration of astrophysical spectrometers, broadband spectroscopy and metrology. Implementations can involve two optical frequency standards as input lasers, or one standard and a second laser phase-locked to it using a stable microwave reference oscillator. Energy and momentum conservation required by the parametric generation assures phase coherence among comb frequencies, while fibers with short lengths can avoid linewidth broadening and stimulated Brillouin scattering. In contrast to combs from mode-locked lasers or microcavities, the absence of a resonator allows large tuning of the frequency spacing from tens of gigahertz to beyond teraHertz.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (7)

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr Lattice Clock at 1 x 10-16 Fractional Uncertainty by Remote Optical Evaluation with a Ca Clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del�??Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Full stabilization of a mircoresonator frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Hao Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, "A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cms-1," Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, "Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs," Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pitois, J. Fatome, and G. Millot, "Generation of 160-GHz transform limited pedestal-free pulse train through multiwave mixing compression of a dual-frequency beat signal, " Opt. Lett. 27, 1729-1731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cerqueira S. Jr, J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. A. Rieznik, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, H. L. Fragnito, and J. C. Knight, "Highly efficient generation of broadband cascaded four-wave mixing products," Opt. Express 16, 2816-2828 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. E. E. de Araujo, "Selective and efficient excitation of diatomic molecules by an ultrashort pulse train," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, "Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km," Opt.Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Champenois, G. Hagel, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, C. Zumsteg, and F. Vedel, "Terahertz Frequency Standard Based on Three-Photon Coherent Population Trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Lea, "Limits to time variation of fundamental constants from comparisons of atomic frequency standards," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1473-1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. S. Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, "Ultrahigh-Speed OTDM-Transmission Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4616-4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "20-GHz-to-1 GHz repetition rate pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1038-1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pitois, C. Finot, J. Fatome, B. Sinardet, and G . Millot, "Generation of 20-GHz picosecond pulse trains in the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 260, 301-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, Y. Coello, V. V. Lozovoy, D. A. Harris, and M. Dantus, "Pulse shaping of octave spanning femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 10939-10944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Stowe, F. C. Cruz, A. Marian, and J. Ye, "Coherent population transfer dynamics controlled by pulse accumulation and spectral phase manipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 153001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "320/640 GHz high-quality pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quraishi, M. Griebel, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and R. Bratschitsch, "Generation of phase-locked and tunable continuous-wave radiation in the terahertz regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 3231-3233 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, "High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure," Science 306, 2063-2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic Crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, "Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459-1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 Line with a Mode-Locked Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, �??�??Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,�??�??Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Laser-Cooled Mercury Ion Frequency Standard," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2089-2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

J. Zhou, R. Hiu, and N. Caponio, "Spectral linewidth and frequency chirp four-wave mixing components in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 434-436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves 15, 1-44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. A. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, �??�??Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,�??�??Opt. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764- 2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, and R. I. MacDonald, "cw three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5106 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del�??Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Full stabilization of a mircoresonator frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

Bergquist, J. C.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
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P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
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D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, "Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs," Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
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C. Champenois, G. Hagel, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, C. Zumsteg, and F. Vedel, "Terahertz Frequency Standard Based on Three-Photon Coherent Population Trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013001 (2007).
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P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
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P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
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S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
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M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, "High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
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P. Del�??Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Full stabilization of a mircoresonator frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
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P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
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W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
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D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, "Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs," Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
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S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
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W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
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J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, "Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459-1467 (2003).
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T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, "Phase-coherent link from optical to microwave frequencies by means of the broadband continuum from a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 27, 1842-1844 (2002).
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S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
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W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
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A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, "High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
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S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
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J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "20-GHz-to-1 GHz repetition rate pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1038-1046 (2006).
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S. Pitois, C. Finot, J. Fatome, B. Sinardet, and G . Millot, "Generation of 20-GHz picosecond pulse trains in the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 260, 301-306 (2006).
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J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "320/640 GHz high-quality pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41 (2005).
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M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr Lattice Clock at 1 x 10-16 Fractional Uncertainty by Remote Optical Evaluation with a Ca Clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
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Fortier, T.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, "Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs," Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
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W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaidis, M. C.

P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
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A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
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A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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Hagel, G.

C. Champenois, G. Hagel, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, C. Zumsteg, and F. Vedel, "Terahertz Frequency Standard Based on Three-Photon Coherent Population Trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013001 (2007).
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Hänsch, T. W.

M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
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Hänsch, T.W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 Line with a Mode-Locked Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, "High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
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A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
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J. Zhou, R. Hiu, and N. Caponio, "Spectral linewidth and frequency chirp four-wave mixing components in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 434-436 (1994).
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Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, "Phase-coherent link from optical to microwave frequencies by means of the broadband continuum from a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 27, 1842-1844 (2002).
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S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
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Hollberg, L. W.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del�??Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Full stabilization of a mircoresonator frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
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M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves 15, 1-44 (1994).
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E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
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S. Pitois, J. Fatome, and G. Millot, "Generation of 160-GHz transform limited pedestal-free pulse train through multiwave mixing compression of a dual-frequency beat signal, " Opt. Lett. 27, 1729-1731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "20-GHz-to-1 GHz repetition rate pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1038-1046 (2006).
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S. Pitois, C. Finot, J. Fatome, B. Sinardet, and G . Millot, "Generation of 20-GHz picosecond pulse trains in the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 260, 301-306 (2006).
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J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "320/640 GHz high-quality pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41 (2005).
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Ramond, T. M.

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 Line with a Mode-Locked Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
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Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595 (2006).
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D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves 15, 1-44 (1994).
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P. Del�??Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Full stabilization of a mircoresonator frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
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Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Pitois, C. Finot, J. Fatome, B. Sinardet, and G . Millot, "Generation of 20-GHz picosecond pulse trains in the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 260, 301-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Stowe, F. C. Cruz, A. Marian, and J. Ye, "Coherent population transfer dynamics controlled by pulse accumulation and spectral phase manipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 153001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure," Science 306, 2063-2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strumia, F.

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves 15, 1-44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
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N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, "Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km," Opt.Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007)
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
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D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves 15, 1-44 (1994).
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Thomsen, J. W.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr Lattice Clock at 1 x 10-16 Fractional Uncertainty by Remote Optical Evaluation with a Ca Clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 Line with a Mode-Locked Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vedel, F.

C. Champenois, G. Hagel, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, C. Zumsteg, and F. Vedel, "Terahertz Frequency Standard Based on Three-Photon Coherent Population Trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. G.

Wilken, T.

P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. A.

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, "Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km," Opt.Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, F.

P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Laser-Cooled Mercury Ion Frequency Standard," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2089-2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, "High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

M. C. Stowe, F. C. Cruz, A. Marian, and J. Ye, "Coherent population transfer dynamics controlled by pulse accumulation and spectral phase manipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 153001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure," Science 306, 2063-2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, "Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459-1467 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. A. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, �??�??Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,�??�??Opt. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, �??�??Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,�??�??Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zelevinsky, T.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr Lattice Clock at 1 x 10-16 Fractional Uncertainty by Remote Optical Evaluation with a Ca Clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764- 2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, R. Hiu, and N. Caponio, "Spectral linewidth and frequency chirp four-wave mixing components in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 434-436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zumsteg, C.

C. Champenois, G. Hagel, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, C. Zumsteg, and F. Vedel, "Terahertz Frequency Standard Based on Three-Photon Coherent Population Trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmayer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Chen, G. A. Blake, M. C. Gaidis, E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, S. Y. Chou, M. I. Nathan, and F. Williamson, "Spectroscopic applications and frequency locking of THz photomixing with distributed-Bragg-reflector diode lasers in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1601-1603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764- 2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, "High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "320/640 GHz high-quality pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, "Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs," Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 57-66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, "20-GHz-to-1 GHz repetition rate pulse sources based on multiple four-wave mixing in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1038-1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Zhou, R. Hiu, and N. Caponio, "Spectral linewidth and frequency chirp four-wave mixing components in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 434-436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves (1)

D. Pereira, J. C. S. Moraes, E. M. Telles, A. Scalabrin, F. Strumia, A. Moretti, G. Carelli, and C. A. Massa, "A review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes," Int. J. Infr. Mill. Waves 15, 1-44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, and R. I. MacDonald, "cw three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5106 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini,C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D�??Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, "High-precision wavelength calibration with laser frequency combs," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839-847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (6)

C.-Hao Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, "A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cms-1," Nature 452, 610-612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del�??Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator," Nature 450, 1214-1217 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic Crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Pitois, C. Finot, J. Fatome, B. Sinardet, and G . Millot, "Generation of 20-GHz picosecond pulse trains in the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 260, 301-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt.Lett. (1)

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, "Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km," Opt.Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. E. E. de Araujo, "Selective and efficient excitation of diatomic molecules by an ultrashort pulse train," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. C. Stowe, F. C. Cruz, A. Marian, and J. Ye, "Coherent population transfer dynamics controlled by pulse accumulation and spectral phase manipulation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 153001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, �??�??Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,�??�??Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Champenois, G. Hagel, M. Houssin, M. Knoop, C. Zumsteg, and F. Vedel, "Terahertz Frequency Standard Based on Three-Photon Coherent Population Trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Laser-Cooled Mercury Ion Frequency Standard," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2089-2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Del�??Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, "Full stabilization of a mircoresonator frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-Atom Optical Clock with High Accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hänsch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 Line with a Mode-Locked Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

S. N. Lea, "Limits to time variation of fundamental constants from comparisons of atomic frequency standards," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1473-1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr Lattice Clock at 1 x 10-16 Fractional Uncertainty by Remote Optical Evaluation with a Ca Clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure," Science 306, 2063-2068 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond Control and Measurement: Lightwave Electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg-199(+) ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Rodwell, J. E. Bowers, R. Pullela, K. Gilboney, J. Pusl, and D. Nguyen, �??�??Electric and optoelectronic components for fiber transmission at bandwidths approaching 100 GHz,�??�?? in LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1995), pp. 21-22.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Optical Fiber Optics (Academic Press, New York, 2001).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used to generate an OFC by FWM in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Laser 1 (frequency f1), is an optical frequency standard and laser 2 (at f2) is phase-locked to it using a stable reference oscillator. PC: polarization controller, AM: amplitude modulator, EDFA: Erbium doped fiber amplifier, PD: photodetector; DBM: double-balanced mixer, PLL: phase-locked loop, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f n = n f rep + f ceo
f m = m Δ f + f Offset

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