Abstract

We introduce and present experimental evaluations of loss and nonlinear optical response in a waveguide and an optical resonator, both implemented with a silicon nitride/silicon dioxide material platform prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with dual frequency reactors that significantly reduce the stress and the consequent loss of the devices. We measure a relatively small loss of ~4dB/cm in the waveguides. The fabricated ring resonators in add-drop and all-pass arrangements demonstrate quality factors of Q=12,900 and 35,600. The resonators are used to measure both the thermal and ultrafast Kerr nonlinearities. The measured thermal nonlinearity is larger than expected, which is attributed to slower heat dissipation in the plasma-deposited silicon dioxide film. The n 2 for silicon nitride that is unknown in the literature is measured, for the first time, as 2.4×10-15cm2/W, which is 10 times larger than that for silicon dioxide.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (4)

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Material and structural criteria for ultra-fast Kerr nonlinear switching in optical resonant cavities,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, Y. Shen, and Y. Fainman, “Enhanced optical nonlinearity in amorphous silicon and its application to waveguide devices,” Opt. Express 15, 17761–17771 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Nonlinear Fabry-Perot resonator with a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3486–3488 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express,  13, 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, “Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018–2025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellutti, P.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, A.

Carter, C. A.

Chernikov, S. V.

Chodorow, M.

Connick, I-W.

E. P. van de Ven, I-W. Connick, and A. S. Harrus, “Advantages of dual frequency PECVD for deposition of ILD and passivation films,” Proc. IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (VMIC), 194–201 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Crivellari, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, Y. M.

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, “Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018–2025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Girardini, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. M.

Harrus, A. S.

E. P. van de Ven, I-W. Connick, and A. S. Harrus, “Advantages of dual frequency PECVD for deposition of ILD and passivation films,” Proc. IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (VMIC), 194–201 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

Henschel, W.

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, “Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018–2025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Katz, L. E.

Kazarinov, R. F.

Kira, G.

Kuramochi, E.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express,  13, 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, “Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018–2025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Levring, O. A.

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, A.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express,  13, 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishiguchi, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express,  13, 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlowsky, K. J.

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pucker, G.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express,  13, 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, L. F.

Streifer, W.

Stutius, W.

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express,  13, 2678–2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. R.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van de Ven, E. P.

E. P. van de Ven, I-W. Connick, and A. S. Harrus, “Advantages of dual frequency PECVD for deposition of ILD and passivation films,” Proc. IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (VMIC), 194–201 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, “Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Ligthtwave Technol. (2)

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Girardini, G. Pucker, M. Crivellari, P. Bellutti, A. Lui, and L. Pavesi, “Comparison Among Various Si3N4 Waveguide Geometries Grown Within a CMOS Fabrication Pilot Line,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 22, 1734–1740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of Add-Drop Filters Based on Frequency-Matched Microring Resonators,” J. Ligthtwave Technol. 24, 2207–2218 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, “Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018–2025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Solid-State Electron. (1)

K. Ikeda and Y. Fainman, “Material and structural criteria for ultra-fast Kerr nonlinear switching in optical resonant cavities,” Solid-State Electron. 51, 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. P. van de Ven, I-W. Connick, and A. S. Harrus, “Advantages of dual frequency PECVD for deposition of ILD and passivation films,” Proc. IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (VMIC), 194–201 (1990)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SiN/SiO2 waveguide: (a) and (b) SEM micrographs of the SiN/SiO2 waveguides before and after the SiO2 upper-cladding deposition, respectively. (c) Measured data and curve fit of propagation loss vs. waveguide length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ring resonator with the SiN/SiO2 waveguide (r=20µm, g=700nm): (a) SEM micrograph of the ring. (b) and (c) Transmission spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonlinear response of the SiN/SiO2 ring resonator: (a) and (b) Nonlinear responses with CW light, (c) Probe signal modulation by pump modulated at 100kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time response of Δn calculated with Eq. (2)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

All-pass type ring resonator with the SiN/SiO2 waveguide (r=20µm, g=600nm): (a) transmission spectrum (b) Probe signal modulations by pump modulated at 1GHz.

Equations (5)

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M = κ · exp ( α L 2 ) 2 ( 1 1 κ exp ( α L 2 ) ) 2 = 7.2 .
d Δ n dt = Δ n a Δ n t c .
Δ n a = ( dn dT ) · I · α 2 · ρ · C p ,
t c = R m 2 · ρ · C p 4 · k .
M = ( 1 κ ) · exp ( α L ) ( 1 κ exp ( α L 2 ) ) 2 ,

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