Abstract

Biomedical sensors, integrated into textiles would enable monitoring of many vitally important physiological parameters during our daily life. In this paper we demonstrate the design and performance of a textile based pulse oximeter, operating on the forefinger tip in transmission mode. The sensors consisted of plastic optical fibers integrated into common fabrics. To emit light to the human tissue and to collect transmitted light the fibers were either integrated into a textile substrate by embroidery (producing microbends with a nominal diameter of 0.5 to 2 mm) or the fibers inside woven patterns have been altered mechanically after fabric production. In our experiments we used a two-wavelength approach (690 and 830 nm) for pulse wave acquisition and arterial oxygen saturation calculation. We have fabricated different specimens to study signal yield and quality, and a cotton glove, equipped with textile based light emitter and detector, has been used to examine movement artifacts. Our results show that textile-based oximetry is feasible with sufficient data quality and its potential as a wearable health monitoring device is promising.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  26. B. Yang, X. Tao, J. Yu, and H. Ho, "Compression Force Measured by Fiber Optic Smart Cellular Textile Composites," Text. Res. J. 74, 305-313 (2004).
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  28. J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider, and W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites A 34, 855-861 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  33. S. R. Emge, and C. L. Chen, "Two-dimensional contour imaging with a fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act.B-Chem. 3, 31-42 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, "Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers," Sensors 8, 4318-4329 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  37. B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
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  43. O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta. Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. H. L. Edmonds, Jr., B. L. Ganzel, and E. H. Austin, 3rd, "Cerebral oximetry for cardiac and vascular surgery," Semin. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 8, 147-166 (2004).
  49. M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. J. C. Hebden, "Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain," Psychophysiology 40, 501-510 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Y. Hoshi, "Functional near-infrared spectroscopy: potential and limitations in neuroimaging studies," Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 66, 237-266 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  52. H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  53. V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  57. K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
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  59. J. G. Webster, Design of Pulse Oximeters (IOP, Bristol, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  60. A. Jubran, "Pulse Oximetry," Crit. Care 3, R11-R17 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  61. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Endruweit, A. C. Long, and M. S. Johnson, "Textile composites with integrated optical fibres: quantification of the influence of single and multiple fibre bends on the light transmission using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method," Smart Mater. Struct. 17, 015004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, "Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers," Sensors 8, 4318-4329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, "Progress of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation for brain and muscle clinical applications," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,062104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, "A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 877-885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop. K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, "Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. L. P. Tang and G. K. Stylios, "An overview of smart technologies for clothing design and engineering," Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol. 18, 108-128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Coosemans, B. Hermans, and R. Puers, "Integrating wireless ECG monitoring in textiles," Sens. Act. A - Phys. 130, 48-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Heo, J. H. Chung, and J. J. Lee, "Tactile sensor arrays using fiber Bragg grating sensors," Sens. Act.A-Phys. 126, 312-327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Masuda, T. Murakami, K. Honda, and S. Yamaguchi, "Optical Properties of Woven Fabrics by Plastic Optical Fiber," J. Text. Eng. 52, 93-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Tobias, "Cerebral oxygenation monitoring: near-infrared spectroscopy," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 3, 235-243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. C. Taillefer and A. Y. Denault, "Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy in adult heart surgery: systematic review of its clinical efficacy," Can. J. Anaesth. 52, 79-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hoshi, "Functional near-infrared spectroscopy: potential and limitations in neuroimaging studies," Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 66, 237-266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Carpi and D. De Rossi, "Electroactive polymer-based devices for e-textiles in biomedicine," IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 9, 295-318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhawan, T. K. Ghosh, and A. Seyam, "Fiber-Based Electrical and Optical Devices and Systems," Text. Progr. 36, 1-84 (2005).

2004

B. Yang, X. Tao, J. Yu, and H. Ho, "Compression Force Measured by Fiber Optic Smart Cellular Textile Composites," Text. Res. J. 74, 305-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, R. Huang, and Y. Rao, "Internal Strain Measurement in 3D Braided Composites Using Co-braided Optical Fiber Sensors," J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 20, 199-202 (2004).

H. L. Edmonds, Jr., B. L. Ganzel, and E. H. Austin, 3rd, "Cerebral oximetry for cardiac and vascular surgery," Semin. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 8, 147-166 (2004).

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. C. Hebden, "Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain," Psychophysiology 40, 501-510 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Hardaker, and R. V. Gregory, "Progress toward dynamic color-responsive 'chameleon' fiber systems," MRS Bull. 28, 564-567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider, and W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites A 34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Harlin, M. Mäkinen, and A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, 1-8 (2003).

2001

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zubia and J. Arrue, "Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fib. Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

X. M. Tao, "Integration of fibre-optic sensors in smart textile composites: Design and fabrication," J. Text. Inst. 91, 448-459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Gershenfeld, and N. Russo, "E-broidery�??Design and fabrication of textile-based computing," IBM Syst. J. 39,840-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta. Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tao, L. Tanga, W. Dua, and C. L. Choyb, "Internal strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating sensors in textile composites," Comp. Sci. Technol. 60, 657-669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Gopalsamy, S. Park, R. Rajamanickam, and S. Jayaraman, "The wearable motherboard: The first generation of adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS) for medical applications," J. Virtual Reality 4, 152-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Jubran, "Pulse Oximetry," Crit. Care 3, R11-R17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, "Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites," Composite Structures 42, 217-229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. W. Berthold, "Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1193-1199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. R. Emge, and C. L. Chen, "Two-dimensional contour imaging with a fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act.B-Chem. 3, 31-42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. T. Jenstrom, and C. L. Chen, "A fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act. 20, 239-248 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abouraddy, A. F.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop. K. Carroll, G. Lloyd, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, and I. Bennion, "Application of long-period-grating sensors to respiratory plethysmography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

An, K. H.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrue, J.

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A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
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D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
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H. L. Edmonds, Jr., B. L. Ganzel, and E. H. Austin, 3rd, "Cerebral oximetry for cardiac and vascular surgery," Semin. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 8, 147-166 (2004).

Ballato, J.

M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
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C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
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A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
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A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
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O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
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J. W. Berthold, "Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1193-1199 (1995).
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R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
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R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta. Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
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Brewster, M. M.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
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Brown, P.

M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
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Buchholz, J.

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
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Bulow, J.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
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Camenzind, M.

B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
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Carew, S.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
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F. Carpi and D. De Rossi, "Electroactive polymer-based devices for e-textiles in biomedicine," IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 9, 295-318 (2005).
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S. R. Emge, and C. L. Chen, "Two-dimensional contour imaging with a fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act.B-Chem. 3, 31-42 (1991).
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D. T. Jenstrom, and C. L. Chen, "A fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act. 20, 239-248 (1989).
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W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, "Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites," Composite Structures 42, 217-229 (1998).
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X. Tao, L. Tanga, W. Dua, and C. L. Choyb, "Internal strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating sensors in textile composites," Comp. Sci. Technol. 60, 657-669 (2000).
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J. S. Heo, J. H. Chung, and J. J. Lee, "Tactile sensor arrays using fiber Bragg grating sensors," Sens. Act.A-Phys. 126, 312-327 (2006).
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M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, "Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers," Sensors 8, 4318-4329 (2008).
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J. Coosemans, B. Hermans, and R. Puers, "Integrating wireless ECG monitoring in textiles," Sens. Act. A - Phys. 130, 48-53 (2006).
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Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
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D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, D.

F. Carpi and D. De Rossi, "Electroactive polymer-based devices for e-textiles in biomedicine," IEEE Trans. Inf. Tech. Biomed. 9, 295-318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
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M. C. Taillefer and A. Y. Denault, "Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy in adult heart surgery: systematic review of its clinical efficacy," Can. J. Anaesth. 52, 79-87 (2005).
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Depre, A.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
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Dhawan, A.

A. Dhawan, T. K. Ghosh, and A. Seyam, "Fiber-Based Electrical and Optical Devices and Systems," Text. Progr. 36, 1-84 (2005).

Du, W.

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, "Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites," Composite Structures 42, 217-229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dua, W.

X. Tao, L. Tanga, W. Dua, and C. L. Choyb, "Internal strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating sensors in textile composites," Comp. Sci. Technol. 60, 657-669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edmonds, H. L.

H. L. Edmonds, Jr., B. L. Ganzel, and E. H. Austin, 3rd, "Cerebral oximetry for cardiac and vascular surgery," Semin. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 8, 147-166 (2004).

El-Sherif, D.

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

El-Sherif, M.

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

El-Sherif, M. A.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

Emge, S. R.

S. R. Emge, and C. L. Chen, "Two-dimensional contour imaging with a fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act.B-Chem. 3, 31-42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Endruweit, A.

A. Endruweit, A. C. Long, and M. S. Johnson, "Textile composites with integrated optical fibres: quantification of the influence of single and multiple fibre bends on the light transmission using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method," Smart Mater. Struct. 17, 015004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enfiel, L. C.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
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M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, "Progress of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation for brain and muscle clinical applications," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,062104 (2007).
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M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
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V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
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M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

Filho, I. P.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
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Fink, Y.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
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O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foulger, S.

M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gafsi, R.

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

Ganzel, B. L.

H. L. Edmonds, Jr., B. L. Ganzel, and E. H. Austin, 3rd, "Cerebral oximetry for cardiac and vascular surgery," Semin. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 8, 147-166 (2004).

Gershenfeld, P. R.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Gershenfeld, and N. Russo, "E-broidery�??Design and fabrication of textile-based computing," IBM Syst. J. 39,840-860 (2000).
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Ghosh, T. K.

A. Dhawan, T. K. Ghosh, and A. Seyam, "Fiber-Based Electrical and Optical Devices and Systems," Text. Progr. 36, 1-84 (2005).

Gibson, A.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzales-Alonzo, J.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
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Gopalsamy, C.

C. Gopalsamy, S. Park, R. Rajamanickam, and S. Jayaraman, "The wearable motherboard: The first generation of adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS) for medical applications," J. Virtual Reality 4, 152-168 (1999).
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S. S. Hardaker, and R. V. Gregory, "Progress toward dynamic color-responsive 'chameleon' fiber systems," MRS Bull. 28, 564-567 (2003).
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A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
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S. S. Hardaker, and R. V. Gregory, "Progress toward dynamic color-responsive 'chameleon' fiber systems," MRS Bull. 28, 564-567 (2003).
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A. Harlin, M. Mäkinen, and A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, 1-8 (2003).

Hart, S. D.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
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Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, "Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain," Psychophysiology 40, 501-510 (2003).
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Heider, D.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider, and W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites A 34, 855-861 (2003).
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Heo, J. S.

J. S. Heo, J. H. Chung, and J. J. Lee, "Tactile sensor arrays using fiber Bragg grating sensors," Sens. Act.A-Phys. 126, 312-327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, B.

J. Coosemans, B. Hermans, and R. Puers, "Integrating wireless ECG monitoring in textiles," Sens. Act. A - Phys. 130, 48-53 (2006).
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Ho, H.

B. Yang, X. Tao, J. Yu, and H. Ho, "Compression Force Measured by Fiber Optic Smart Cellular Textile Composites," Text. Res. J. 74, 305-313 (2004).
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Honda, K.

A. Masuda, T. Murakami, K. Honda, and S. Yamaguchi, "Optical Properties of Woven Fabrics by Plastic Optical Fiber," J. Text. Eng. 52, 93-97 (2006).
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Hoshi, Y.

Y. Hoshi, "Functional near-infrared spectroscopy: potential and limitations in neuroimaging studies," Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 66, 237-266 (2005).
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Huang, R.

S. Yuan, R. Huang, and Y. Rao, "Internal Strain Measurement in 3D Braided Composites Using Co-braided Optical Fiber Sensors," J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 20, 199-202 (2004).

Ibanescu, M.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivatury, R. R.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman, S.

C. Gopalsamy, S. Park, R. Rajamanickam, and S. Jayaraman, "The wearable motherboard: The first generation of adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS) for medical applications," J. Virtual Reality 4, 152-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jenstrom, D. T.

D. T. Jenstrom, and C. L. Chen, "A fiber optic microbend tactile sensor array," Sens. Act. 20, 239-248 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. S.

A. Endruweit, A. C. Long, and M. S. Johnson, "Textile composites with integrated optical fibres: quantification of the influence of single and multiple fibre bends on the light transmission using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method," Smart Mater. Struct. 17, 015004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jubran, A.

A. Jubran, "Pulse Oximetry," Crit. Care 3, R11-R17 (1999).
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Kaser-Hotz, B.

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khan, T.

B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinet, D.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, M.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
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Koncar, V.

V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-44 (2005).
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Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krebber, K.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langberg, H.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

J. S. Heo, J. H. Chung, and J. J. Lee, "Tactile sensor arrays using fiber Bragg grating sensors," Sens. Act.A-Phys. 126, 312-327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. C.

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

Leff, D. R.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lepanto, R.

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

Li, W.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider, and W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites A 34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Long, A. C.

A. Endruweit, A. C. Long, and M. S. Johnson, "Textile composites with integrated optical fibres: quantification of the influence of single and multiple fibre bends on the light transmission using a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method," Smart Mater. Struct. 17, 015004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luong, M. P.

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, "Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers," Sensors 8, 4318-4329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, D.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, G. M.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MacDiarmid, A.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

Mäkinen, M.

A. Harlin, M. Mäkinen, and A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, 1-8 (2003).

Masuda, A.

A. Masuda, T. Murakami, K. Honda, and S. Yamaguchi, "Optical Properties of Woven Fabrics by Plastic Optical Fiber," J. Text. Eng. 52, 93-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mignanelli, M.

M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mottola, L.

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, T.

A. Masuda, T. Murakami, K. Honda, and S. Yamaguchi, "Optical Properties of Woven Fabrics by Plastic Optical Fiber," J. Text. Eng. 52, 93-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noury, N.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, B.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, J.

R. Boushel, H. Langberg, J. Olesen, J. Gonzales-Alonzo, J. Bulow, and M. Kjaer, "Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease," Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 11, 213-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orf, N.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orf, N. D.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orth, M.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Gershenfeld, and N. Russo, "E-broidery�??Design and fabrication of textile-based computing," IBM Syst. J. 39,840-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

C. Gopalsamy, S. Park, R. Rajamanickam, and S. Jayaraman, "The wearable motherboard: The first generation of adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS) for medical applications," J. Virtual Reality 4, 152-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patten, D. K.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piantadosi, C. A.

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta. Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pipe, K. P.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pirotte, F.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, R.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Post, E. R.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Gershenfeld, and N. Russo, "E-broidery�??Design and fabrication of textile-based computing," IBM Syst. J. 39,840-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Puers, R.

J. Coosemans, B. Hermans, and R. Puers, "Integrating wireless ECG monitoring in textiles," Sens. Act. A - Phys. 130, 48-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quaresima, V.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, "Progress of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation for brain and muscle clinical applications," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,062104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferrari, L. Mottola, and V. Quaresima, "Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy," Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 29, 463-487 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, R. Lepanto, and M. Ferrari, "The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine," J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 43, 1-13 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rajamanickam, R.

C. Gopalsamy, S. Park, R. Rajamanickam, and S. Jayaraman, "The wearable motherboard: The first generation of adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS) for medical applications," J. Virtual Reality 4, 152-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.

S. Yuan, R. Huang, and Y. Rao, "Internal Strain Measurement in 3D Braided Composites Using Co-braided Optical Fiber Sensors," J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 20, 199-202 (2004).

Richards, K.

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

Rodriguez, A.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothmaier, M.

M. Rothmaier, M. P. Luong, and F. Clemens, "Textile Pressure Sensor Made of Flexible Plastic Optical Fibers," Sensors 8, 4318-4329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russo, N.

E. R. Post, M. Orth, P. R. Gershenfeld, and N. Russo, "E-broidery�??Design and fabrication of textile-based computing," IBM Syst. J. 39,840-860 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scanaill, C. N.

C. N. Scanaill, S. Carew, P. Barralon, N. Noury, D. Lyons, and G. M. Lyons, "A review of approaches to mobility telemonitoring of the elderly in their living environment," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 547-563 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schukar, M.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, J.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider, and W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites A 34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Selm, B.

B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seyam, A.

A. Dhawan, T. K. Ghosh, and A. Seyam, "Fiber-Based Electrical and Optical Devices and Systems," Text. Progr. 36, 1-84 (2005).

Shapira, O.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shtein, M.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, F.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiess, B.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stylios, G. K.

S. L. P. Tang and G. K. Stylios, "An overview of smart technologies for clothing design and engineering," Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol. 18, 108-128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taillefer, M. C.

M. C. Taillefer and A. Y. Denault, "Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy in adult heart surgery: systematic review of its clinical efficacy," Can. J. Anaesth. 52, 79-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, "Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites," Composite Structures 42, 217-229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. L. P.

S. L. P. Tang and G. K. Stylios, "An overview of smart technologies for clothing design and engineering," Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol. 18, 108-128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanga, L.

X. Tao, L. Tanga, W. Dua, and C. L. Choyb, "Internal strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating sensors in textile composites," Comp. Sci. Technol. 60, 657-669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

B. Yang, X. Tao, J. Yu, and H. Ho, "Compression Force Measured by Fiber Optic Smart Cellular Textile Composites," Text. Res. J. 74, 305-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Tao, L. Tanga, W. Dua, and C. L. Choyb, "Internal strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating sensors in textile composites," Comp. Sci. Technol. 60, 657-669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

X. M. Tao, "Integration of fibre-optic sensors in smart textile composites: Design and fabrication," J. Text. Inst. 91, 448-459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, "Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites," Composite Structures 42, 217-229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. Bayindir, G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, K. Kuriki, N. Orf, O. Shapira, F. Sorin, B. Temelkuran, and Y. Fink, "Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate," Nature Materials 6, 336-347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terner, J.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tobias, J. D.

J. D. Tobias, "Cerebral oxygenation monitoring: near-infrared spectroscopy," Expert Rev. Med. Devices 3, 235-243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trahan, M.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider, and W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites A 34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unternährer, M.

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viens, J. F.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, and M. M. Brewster, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Optics Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, "Beyond the visible--imaging the human brain with light," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vuorivirta, A.

A. Harlin, M. Mäkinen, and A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, 1-8 (2003).

Walt, H.

B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, and H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Khan, M. Unternährer, J. Buchholz, B. Kaser-Hotz, B. Selm, M. Rothmaier, and H. Walt, "Performance of a contact textile-based light diffuser for photodynamic therapy," Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy 3, 51-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wani, K.

M. Mignanelli, K. Wani, J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and P. Brown, "Polymer microstructured fibers by one-step extrusion," Optics Express 15, 6183-6189 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, K. R.

K. R. Ward, R. R. Ivatury, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. Pittman, I. P. Filho, and B. Spiess, "Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review," Resuscitation 68, 27-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warren, O. J.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Witt, J.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depre, "Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded Into Medical Textiles for Healthcare Monitoring," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1215-1222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, "Progress of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation for brain and muscle clinical applications," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,062104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T. H.

J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, "A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 877-885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

A. Masuda, T. Murakami, K. Honda, and S. Yamaguchi, "Optical Properties of Woven Fabrics by Plastic Optical Fiber," J. Text. Eng. 52, 93-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

B. Yang, X. Tao, J. Yu, and H. Ho, "Compression Force Measured by Fiber Optic Smart Cellular Textile Composites," Text. Res. J. 74, 305-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

D. R. Leff, O. J. Warren, L. C. Enfiel, A. Gibson, T. Athanasiou, D. K. Patten, J. Hebden, G. Z. Yang, and A. Darzi, "Diffuse optical imaging of the healthy and diseased breast: A systematic review," Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 108,9-22 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

B. Yang, X. Tao, J. Yu, and H. Ho, "Compression Force Measured by Fiber Optic Smart Cellular Textile Composites," Text. Res. J. 74, 305-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J.

M. El-Sherif, K. Fidanboylu, D. El-Sherif, R. Gafsi, J. Yuan, K. Richards, and K. C. Lee, "A novel fiber optic system for measuring the dynamic structural behavior of parachutes," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 351-359 (2000).

Yuan, J. M.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, and A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Int. Mat. Sys. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, R. Huang, and Y. Rao, "Internal Strain Measurement in 3D Braided Composites Using Co-braided Optical Fiber Sensors," J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 20, 199-202 (2004).

Zhang, Y.

J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, "A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 877-885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. B.

J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, "A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 877-885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. W.

J. W. Zheng, Z. B. Zhang, T. H. Wu, and Y. Zhang, "A wearable mobihealth care system supporting real-time diagnosis and alarm," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 877-885 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubia, J.

J. Zubia and J. Arrue, "Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fib. Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A-Phys.

J. S. Heo, J. H. Chung, and J. J. Lee, "Tactile sensor arrays using fiber Bragg grating sensors," Sens. Act.A-Phys. 126, 312-327 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acta. Physiol. Scand.

R. Boushel and C. A. Piantadosi, "Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation," Acta. Physiol. Scand. 168, 615-622 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mat.

B. O'Connor, K. H. An, Y. Zhao, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, "Fiber Shaped Light Emitting Device," Adv. Mat. 19, 3897-3900 (2007).
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Ann. Biomed. Eng.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Textile techniques used, POF (red), PET fibers (light blue). Left scheme: canvas pattern weaving of POF and PET fibers; middle scheme: Soutage embroidery (PET substrate in light blue, retention stitches in dark blue); right scheme: Schiffli embroidery. Both embroideries are using a canvas type PET weave as substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Woven specimens A to F made of 250 µm PMMA fibers (POF in weft direction, white textile PET fibers in warp direction). Two pictures are shown for every specimen (connected halogen lamp OFF and ON); specimen A and B are untreated and emit no light, therefore only one picture is displayed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Embroidered specimens (G, upper row; H, lower row) made of 175 µm PMMA fibers; both with and without light source connected. The white PET substrate is visible (in warp and weft direction) as well as the threads of the retention stitches.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement setup to determine Eff . Light is projected onto the tissue and the detected light intensity is measured. A similar setup was used when working with the halogen lamp (no lenses and pinhole were used in doing so, and the attached light guide was in direct contact with the textile).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Setup to record pulse waves at forefinger tip. The OxiplexTS near infrared spectrophotometer includes laser diodes of 690 and 830 nm wavelength and a photomultiplier tube detector. Two fibers transport the light to illuminate the finger tissue. On the opposite side of the finger, the textile specimens A to I receive the transmitted light, which is detected by the photomultiplier tube. In the glove experiment, all fibers were incorporated inside a single textile such that the forefinger tip was positioned between illumination and detection.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pulse waves and their calculated SpO2 of four specimens: weaves (D: upper left; F: upper right), embroideries (G: lower left; I: lower right). Time is displayed on the x-axis and analog/digital counts (ADC) at the detector on the y-axis. Blue lines correspond to 690 nm wavelength, red lines to 830 nm; calculated SpO2 is plotted in green. The amplifier setting at the detector was the same for each measurement. It is visible that a lower intensity (i.e. low ADC counts) leads to more noisy signals.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Pulse waves and SpO2 of glove-type pulse oximeter. The displayed sequence represents closed→open→closed fingers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Light in-coupling efficiency Eff [%] of textile specimens (SD=standard deviation, n=5)

Metrics