Abstract

We present a numerical study of the spectral variations of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in a 3D-probe metallic nanoparticle scanned over an inhomoegeneous dielectric surface. The possibilities for both, index monitoring and lateral resolution at nanoscale level are explored, with special attention paid to the shape of the probe and the profile of the near field underneath.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  2. R. A. Jensen, J. Sherin and S. R. Emory. "Single Nanoparticle Based Optical pH Probe," Appl. Spectr. 61, 832-838 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall. "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: Shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Wang and W. Lin. "Electro-optically modulated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne. "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne. "A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson and V. Sandoghdar. "Tomographic Plasmon Spectroscopy of a Single Gold Nanoparticle," Nano. Lett. 4, 2309-2314 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz. "Plasmon spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles above flat dielectric substrates," Opt. Lett. 31, 1902-1904 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. L. González and C. Noguez. "Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles," J. Comput.Theor. Nanosci. 4, 231-238 (2007).
  11. G. C. Schatz. "Electrodynamics of nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates," J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem.) 573, 73-80 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker. "Scattering and absorption of light by non-spherical dielectric grains,"J. Astrophys. 186, 705-714 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau. "User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1," http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2, (2004).
  14. G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin. "Optical interactions in a plasmonic particle coupled to a metallic film," Opt. Express. 14, 9971-9981 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. D. Palik. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, New York, 1985).
  16. L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz. "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Noguez. "Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles," Opt. Maters 27, 1204-1211 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007

R. A. Jensen, J. Sherin and S. R. Emory. "Single Nanoparticle Based Optical pH Probe," Appl. Spectr. 61, 832-838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. González and C. Noguez. "Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles," J. Comput.Theor. Nanosci. 4, 231-238 (2007).

2006

T. Wang and W. Lin. "Electro-optically modulated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin. "Optical interactions in a plasmonic particle coupled to a metallic film," Opt. Express. 14, 9971-9981 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Moreno, F. González, and J. M. Saiz. "Plasmon spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles above flat dielectric substrates," Opt. Lett. 31, 1902-1904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. Noguez. "Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles," Opt. Maters 27, 1204-1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson and V. Sandoghdar. "Tomographic Plasmon Spectroscopy of a Single Gold Nanoparticle," Nano. Lett. 4, 2309-2314 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne. "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz. "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne. "A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G. C. Schatz. "Electrodynamics of nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates," J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem.) 573, 73-80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1983

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall. "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: Shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker. "Scattering and absorption of light by non-spherical dielectric grains,"J. Astrophys. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

R. A. Jensen, J. Sherin and S. R. Emory. "Single Nanoparticle Based Optical pH Probe," Appl. Spectr. 61, 832-838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

González, A. L.

A. L. González and C. Noguez. "Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles," J. Comput.Theor. Nanosci. 4, 231-238 (2007).

González, F.

Haes, A.

A. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne. "A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hâkanson, U.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson and V. Sandoghdar. "Tomographic Plasmon Spectroscopy of a Single Gold Nanoparticle," Nano. Lett. 4, 2309-2314 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall. "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: Shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, C.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall. "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: Shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, R. A.

R. A. Jensen, J. Sherin and S. R. Emory. "Single Nanoparticle Based Optical pH Probe," Appl. Spectr. 61, 832-838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalkbrenner, T.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson and V. Sandoghdar. "Tomographic Plasmon Spectroscopy of a Single Gold Nanoparticle," Nano. Lett. 4, 2309-2314 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Lévêque, G.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin. "Optical interactions in a plasmonic particle coupled to a metallic film," Opt. Express. 14, 9971-9981 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W.

T. Wang and W. Lin. "Electro-optically modulated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin. "Optical interactions in a plasmonic particle coupled to a metallic film," Opt. Express. 14, 9971-9981 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne. "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz. "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, F.

Noguez, C.

A. L. González and C. Noguez. "Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles," J. Comput.Theor. Nanosci. 4, 231-238 (2007).

C. Noguez. "Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles," Opt. Maters 27, 1204-1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker. "Scattering and absorption of light by non-spherical dielectric grains,"J. Astrophys. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker. "Scattering and absorption of light by non-spherical dielectric grains,"J. Astrophys. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Saiz, J. M.

Sandoghdar, V.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson and V. Sandoghdar. "Tomographic Plasmon Spectroscopy of a Single Gold Nanoparticle," Nano. Lett. 4, 2309-2314 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Schädle, A.

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Schatz. "Electrodynamics of nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates," J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem.) 573, 73-80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz. "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sherin, J.

R. A. Jensen, J. Sherin and S. R. Emory. "Single Nanoparticle Based Optical pH Probe," Appl. Spectr. 61, 832-838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz. "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne. "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne. "A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

T. Wang and W. Lin. "Electro-optically modulated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Wiley, B.J.

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Wang and W. Lin. "Electro-optically modulated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors with gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173903 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectr.

R. A. Jensen, J. Sherin and S. R. Emory. "Single Nanoparticle Based Optical pH Probe," Appl. Spectr. 61, 832-838 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne. "A Nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Astrophys.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker. "Scattering and absorption of light by non-spherical dielectric grains,"J. Astrophys. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci.

A. L. González and C. Noguez. "Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles," J. Comput.Theor. Nanosci. 4, 231-238 (2007).

J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem.)

G. C. Schatz. "Electrodynamics of nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates," J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem.) 573, 73-80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz. "Local refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance spectra from individual nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 3, 485-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Triangular Nanoprisms," Nano. Lett. 6, 2060-2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. Chang, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne. "Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Nanocubes," Nano. Lett. 5, 2034-2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson and V. Sandoghdar. "Tomographic Plasmon Spectroscopy of a Single Gold Nanoparticle," Nano. Lett. 4, 2309-2314 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne. "Single Silver Nanoparticles as Real-Time Optical Sensors with Zeptomole Sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express.

G. Lévêque and O. J. F. Martin. "Optical interactions in a plasmonic particle coupled to a metallic film," Opt. Express. 14, 9971-9981 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Maters

C. Noguez. "Optical properties of isolated and supported metal nanoparticles," Opt. Maters 27, 1204-1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall. "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: Shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

PRL

T. Kalkbrenner, U. Hâkanson, A. Schädle, S. Burger, C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar. "Optical Microscopy via Spectral Modifications of a Nanoantenna," PRL 95, 200801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, New York, 1985).

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau. "User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1," http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2, (2004).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the geometry arrangement. Geometry discretization is shown in the inset. The length of the substrate L may vary from 180 nm to 200 nm, depending on the width d. The height of the substrate H has been fixed to 20 nm (similar height for the substrate is used by G.C. Schatz in ref. [11])

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of the Backscattering cross section calculated for an isolated cubic tip of side a=40 nm (dotted line) and for the same tip scanned along the x axis of a substrate showing two particular positions: xt =-50 nm (plain) and xt =-10 nm (dashed).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface Plasmon shift (ΔλLSPR ) calculated for different values of n’. The substrate refractive index is fixed to n=1,4. The tip size is shown in the inset.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface Plasmon shift (ΔλLSPR ) calculated for different values of d. The substrate and inhomogeneity refractive indexes are fixed to n=1,4 and n’=1,5 respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example of spatial resolution of 2 stripe inhomogeneites of d=80 nm and separated 80 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Near Field plot for a square profile tip of size a=40 nm located at h=2 nm height from a glass substrate. (b) Near Field plot for a circular profile tip of diameter d=50 nm located at 1 nm height from a glass substrate. (c) and (d) line plots at h=1nm of the local electric field for two different tips: square and circular, respectively.

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